本笃会准则由努西亚的圣本笃（公元 480-547 年）于 6 世纪发明，其精神概括为格言：“平和”和传统的“祈祷和工作”，修道院提供了特别人性化的设施给生病的修士和修女，这种准则有时也适用于在家的平信徒，以及来自团体以外的客人。关于如何保持和恢复健康的关键医学原则被吸收到修道院的生活方式中，尤其体现在饮食调节的实践中，人们认为通过调节饮食可以确保人体内适当的体液平衡来预防疾病。因此，保持身体健康在修道院团体中很重要，这表明，与人们对于中世纪宗教的许多传统印象相反，修士和修女并没有忽视他们的身体。
另一方面，中世纪医学，特别是在中世纪后半期（公元 1100 至 1500 年 ，中国的元明时期），成为正式的理论知识体系并在大学中制度化。中世纪医学将疾病归咎于罪恶行为，而不是自然原因，疾病只与罪行有关是相当普遍的观点，即人类罹患疾病是因为从上帝之国堕入世俗的结果。中世纪医学还认识到疾病会在人与人之间传播，某些生活方式可能会导致健康不佳，而且有些人会比别人更容易得病。
希腊医学基础来自一份文集，今天称之为《希波克拉底文集》。《希波克拉底文集》体现在现代医学中，以“希波克拉底誓言”或“不做害人之事（Do No Harm）”最为著名。
希波克拉底的医学知识被记录在《希波克拉底文集》中，因此医生被要求有文化。关于饮食、手术和药物的知识构成了医学学习的基础，罗马帝国时期的希腊医生、哲学家盖伦（公元 129-216 年）基于这些写出了自己的著作。
位于意大利南部城市萨勒诺的第勒尼安海湾的萨勒诺医学院（建于公元 9 世纪），在其附近的蒙特卡西诺修道院里，从希腊语和阿拉伯语翻译而来的世界医学文献一应俱全 。萨勒尼坦的大师们逐渐建立了一套标准，被称为医学技艺或小技艺，成为几个世纪以来欧洲医学教育的基础。
Similarity between Medical knowledge in western Monasteries and Traditional Chinese Medicine
Middle Ages in Europe corresponds to the period of time between the Northern and Southern dynasties and Ming Dynasties in China.
The origins of traditional Chinese medicine can be traced to Shen Nong Shi, a mythological figure from about 5,000 years ago and is considered the third oldest form of medicine and second most used medical system next to Western medicine. Its philosophy is rooted in the ancient philosophy of Taoism.
Chinese medicine views the body and further, the whole person, as a unified organic whole. Spiritual, mental, emotional and physical aspects are all seen as interrelated and interdependent. This perhaps explains why some people see Chinese Medicine as a holistic therapy. On the other side, the western doctor observes the facts before him and uses the current physiological theories to explain them. He separates the various systems and organs of the body and delves deeper and deeper into the particles that comprise matter.
The first Christian contacts with China were forged by the monks of the Eastern Church of Syria in the seventh century, under the Tang dynasty. The Chinese gave their faith the name ‘Jingjao’, ‘religion of light’.
Until the ninth century these monks were able to found monasteries and communities. All trace of them subsequently disappeared. The monastic orders of the Latin Church played no part in the first missionary encounters, and it was not until the end of the nineteenth century that they arrived in the Empire of the Centre.
The fall of the Roman Empire 476 A.D., at the time of Northern and Southern dynasties (Chinese: 南北朝; pinyin: Nán-Běi Cháo) was the first steps of Monasteries in Europe.
Monasteries were among the most important sites for the care of the sick and the dissemination of medical knowledge and the medical preoccupations of monastic communities reflect the fundamental Christian duty of visiting the sick, they also resulted from the self-contained character of these communities and their role as centers of learning.
From the invention of the Benedictine Rule, written by Benedict of Nursia (480-547 AD) in the sixth century, whose spirit is summed up in the motto: “peace” and the traditional “pray and work”, monasteries offered specially personalized facilities to sick monks and nuns, and such provision was sometimes extended to resident lay people, as well as to guests from outside the community. Key medical principles about how to maintain and restore health were assimilated into the monastic way of life, shown particularly in the practice of the regulation of the diet, which was understood to prevent ill health by ensuring the proper humoral balance within a person’s body. Physical health, therefore, was important in monastic communities, indicating that, in contrast to much historical thinking about medieval religious, monks and nuns did not repudiate their bodies.
Medieval medicine in Western Europe was composed of a mixture of pseudoscientific ideas from antiquity. In the Early Middle Ages, following the fall of the Western Roman Empire, standard medical knowledge was based essentially upon surviving Greek and Roman texts, preserved in monasteries and elsewhere. Medieval medicine is widely misinterpreted, thought of as a uniform attitude composed of placing hopes in the church and God to heal all sicknesses, while sickness itself exists as a product of destiny, sin, and astral influences as physical causes.
On the other hand, medieval medicine, especially in the second half of the medieval period (c. 1100–1500 AD- Yuan and Ming Dynasties in China), became a formal body of theoretical knowledge and was institutionalized in the universities. Medieval medicine attributed illnesses, and disease, not to sinful behaviour, but to natural causes, and sin was only connected to illness in a more general sense of the view that disease manifested in humanity as a result of its fallen state from God. Medieval medicine also recognized that illnesses spread from person to person, that certain lifestyles may cause ill health, and some people have a greater inclination towards bad health than others.
The Western medical tradition goes back directly to the early Greek civilization, northeastern Mediterranean civilization, much like the foundation of all of Western society. The Greeks certainly laid the foundation for Western medical practice but much more of Western medicine can be traced to the Middle East, Germanic, and Celtic cultures.
The Greek medical foundation comes from a collection of writings known today as the Hippocratic Corpus. Remnants of the Hippocratic Corpus survive in modern medicine in forms like the “Hippocratic Oath” as in to “Do No Harm”.
The Hippocratic Corpus, popularly attributed to an ancient Greek medical practitioner known as Hippocrates, who lived at the times of the Warring States period (simplified Chinese: 战国时代 ) laid out the basic approach to health care. Greek philosophers viewed the human body as a system that reflects the workings of nature and Hippocrates applied this belief to medicine. The body, as a reflection of natural forces, contained four elemental properties expressed to the Greeks as the four humors. The humors represented fire, air, earth and water through the properties of hot, cold, dry and moist, respectively. Health in the human body relied on keeping these humors in balance within each person.
Traditional Chinese Medicine relies on the theory of five elements — fire, earth, metal, water, and wood — to explain how the body works and guide treatment; these elements correspond to particular organs and tissues in the body and describe the physiological activities and pathological changes that occur.
Maintaining the balance of humors within a patient occurred in several ways. An initial examination took place as standard for a physician to properly evaluate the patient. The patient’s home climate, their normal diet, and astrological charts were regarded during a consultation. The heavens influenced each person in different ways by influencing elements connected to certain humors, important information in reaching a diagnosis. After the examination, the physician could determine which humor was unbalanced in the patient and prescribe a new diet to restore that balance. Diet included not only food to eat or avoid but also an exercise regimen and medication. The goal is to treat the underlying disharmony and restore balance to the body, and improve a patient’s overall well-being rather than alleviate symptoms.
Hippocratic medicine was written down within the Hippocratic Corpus, therefore medical practitioners were required to be literate. The combination of knowledge in diet, surgery, and medication moulded the foundation of medical learning upon which Galen (129-216 AD), Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire,(Han Dynasty in China, would later build upon with his own works.
Some of the medicine in the Western Middle Ages had its roots in pagan and folk practices. This influence was emphasized by the interaction between Christian theologians who adopted aspects of pagan and folk practices and registered them in their own works. The practices adopted by Christian medical practitioners, and their attitudes toward pagan and folk traditions, reflected an understanding of these practices, especially humoralism and herbalism. In China herbal products have been utilized by traditional medicine for many medical problems, including stroke, heart disease, mental disorders, and respiratory diseases (such as bronchitis and the common cold).
The practice of medicine in the western Middle Ages was empirical and pragmatic. It concentrated primarily on curing disease rather than determining the cause of diseases. Often it was believed the cause of disease was supernatural. However, secular approaches to curing diseases existed. People in the Middle Ages understood medicine by adopting the ancient Greek medical theory of humors. Since it was clear that the fertility of the earth depended on the proper balance of the elements, it followed that the same was true for the body, within which the various humors had to be in balance.
This approach greatly affected medical theory throughout the Middle Ages. Herbs were commonly used in ointments and drinks to treat a range of maladies. The particular herbs used depended largely on the local culture and often had roots in pre-Christian religion. The success of herbal remedies was often ascribed to their action upon the humours within the body. For example, skullcap seeds (used as a headache remedy) can appear to look like miniature skulls; and the white spotted leaves of lungwort (used for tuberculosis) bear a similarity to the lungs of a diseased patient. A large number of such resemblances were believed to exist.
Many monasteries developed herb gardens for use in the production of herbal cures, and these remained a part of folk medicine, as well as being used by some professional physicians and books of herbal remedies were produced.
Folk medicine of the Middle Ages dealt with the use of herbal remedies for ailments. The practice of keeping physic gardens abounding with various herbs with medicinal properties was influenced by the gardens of Roman antiquity. Many early medieval manuscripts have been noted for containing practical descriptions for the use of herbal remedies.
Monasteries later became centres of medical practice in the Middle Ages, and carried on the tradition of maintaining medicinal gardens. These gardens became specialized and capable of maintaining plants from the Southern Hemisphere as well as maintaining plants during winter.
Hildegard of Bingen (1098- 1179 AD), at the time of Emperor Yingzong of Song, the fifth emperor of the Song dynasty of China, was an example of a medieval medical practitioner who, while educated in classical Greek medicine, also utilized folk medicine remedies. Her understanding of the plant based medicines informed her commentary on the humors of the body and the remedies she described in her medical text were influenced by her familiarity with folk treatments of disease. In the rural society of Hildegard’s time, much of the medical care was provided by women, along with their other domestic duties. Kitchens were stocked with herbs and other substances required in folk remedies for many ailments.
The understanding of nature could inform medical treatment of the body for Hildegard but she maintained the belief that the root of disease was a compromised relationship between a person and God. Many parallels between pagan and Christian ideas about disease existed during the early Middle Ages. Christian views of disease differed from those held by pagans because of a fundamental difference in belief: Christians’ belief in a personal relationship with God greatly influenced their views on medicine.
Evidence of pagan influence on emerging Christian medical practice was provided by many renowned early Christian thinkers. The classical idea of the physician as a selfless servant who had to endure unpleasant tasks and provide necessary, often painful treatment was of great influence on early Christian practitioners. The metaphor was not lost on Christians who viewed Christ as the ultimate physician. Pagan philosophy had previously held that the pursuit of virtue should not be secondary to bodily concerns.
Similarly, Christians felt that, while caring for the body was important, it was second to spiritual pursuits. The relationship between faith and the bodies ailments explains why most medieval medical practice was performed by Christian monks.
Monasteries developed not only as spiritual centers, but also centers of intellectual learning and medical practice. Locations of the monasteries were secluded and designed to be self-sufficient, which required the monastic inhabitants to produce their own food and also care for their sick. Prior to the development of hospitals, people from the surrounding towns looked to the monasteries for help with their sick.
A combination of both spiritual and natural healing was used to treat the sick. Herbal remedies, known as Herbals, along with prayer and other religious rituals were used in treatment by the monks and nuns of the monasteries. Herbs were seen by the monks and nuns as one of God’s creations for the natural aid that contributed to the spiritual healing of the sick individual. An herbal textual tradition also developed in the medieval monasteries.
At Salerno Medical School, on the Tyrrhenian Sea in the south Italian city of Salerno in Southern Italy, in the 9th century AD, Tang dynasty in China, medical texts from the Greek and the Arab world were readily available, translated from the Greek and Arabic at the nearby monastic centre of Monte Cassino. The Salernitan masters gradually established a canon of writings, known as the art of medicine or little art, which became the basis of European medical education for several centuries.
意大利中心地区的明珠之一是伊索拉德利里（Isola del Liri，简称为Isola Liri）。如其名字所暗示，Isola，岛屿，位于利里河两岸之间。此河流的许多瀑布被工厂使用。
对于美食爱好者来说，乔恰里亚真的是牛奶和蜂蜜之地，多种多样的当地产品和菜肴给人深刻的印象。意大利面分为2大类：干意大利面（pasta secca）和新鲜意大利面（pasta fresca）。尽管干意大利面可在家里制作，但大多干意大利面通过挤压法进行商业生产。从传统意义来说，新鲜意大利面是通过手工制作，有时使用简单机器辅助。
Two interesting town southeast of Rome, Italy: Isola del Liri and Arpino
Ciociaria (Italian pronunciation: [tʃotʃaˈriːa]) is the name by which, starting from the modern era, some impoverished territories about 100 km southeast of Rome were called at a popular level, without defined geographical limits. Ciociaria, with its capital Frosinone, is a territory characterized by an ancient history made up of medieval villages, immersed in natural resources.
The name Ciociaria would come from the derogatory term, in Roman dialect applied to some poor shepherds, because of their footwear, called in Roman dialect ciocie. These shoes, which were widespread among the poorest shepherds of much of Southern and Southeast Europe, are used today in the province of Frosinone only by folklore groups and for touristic initiatives.
One of the pearls of this region of central Italy is Isola del Liri (simply known as Isola Liri). As its name implies, Isola, Island, is situated between two arms of the Liri river. The many waterfalls of this river are used by factories.
The town’s main sight is the Castello Boncompagni-Viscogliosi, a fortified palace near two waterfalls each about 30 metres (98 ft) high, and a bridge on river.
The Liri Blues Festival, founded in 1988, is one of the main blues music festivals in Italy. It takes place every year in July in Isola del Liri, the town twinned with the city of New Orleans since 1997.
Ciociaria can boast typical local products of absolute excellence and quality. These food and wine products are the best business card for this territory.
For lovers of good food then the Ciociaria really is a land of milk and honey and the variety of local products and dishes remains impressive. Pastas are divided into two broad categories: dried (pasta secca) and fresh (pasta fresca). Most dried pasta is produced commercially via an extrusion process, although it can be produced at home. Fresh pasta is traditionally produced by hand, sometimes with the aid of simple machines, and fresh pasta can be tasted i
Carbonara is an Italian pasta dish made with egg, hard cheese, cured pork, and black pepper.
Since lamb farming is typical of Lazio, a recipe based on the meat of this animal cannot be missing in this region.
The ancient city of Arpino dates back to at least the 7th century BC the time of Zhou dynasty in China. Arpino produced two consuls of the Roman republic, at the time of the Han dynasty (汉朝, Hàncháo) in China: Gaius Marius Roman general, politician, and statesman and Marcus Tullius Cicero, Roman statesman, lawyer, scholar, philosopher.
Attractions include the circuit walls in polygonal masonry. These walls include an example of an ogive arch. The walls stand up to 11 feet in height and up to seven feet in width.
Along the way you can admire medieval views, the ancient Cyclopean walls, numerous churches with works by Cavalier D’Arpino, a painter much patronized in Rome by both Popes Clement and Sixtus V. He was the chief of the studio in which the world famous painter Caravaggio trained upon the younger painter’s arrival in Rome. And last but not least, it is possible to read the pages of the Book of Stone, poems dedicated to Arpino by internationally renowned poets.
The national boarding school “Tulliano”, founded in Arpino in 1814 (with the name of boarding school “Tulliano”), is a historic school, including a high school and an adjoining boarding school, which is part of the network of Italian national boarding schools. It owes its name, “Tulliano”, to the illustrious orator Marcus Tullius Cicero.
它最初以儿童报纸上的《木偶故事》（Giornale per i bambini）的连载形式出版，这也是意大利最早的儿童周刊之一。该故事出版于1881年7月7日，当时中国还处于满清统治时期。故事在连载四个月后止于第15章第8回合，但是应读者的一致要求又于1882年2月16日继续更新。最后于1883年2月该故事以书籍形式出版。此后《木偶奇遇记》在当时各大儿童读物市场久盛不衰，并赢得了全球的热烈好评。
在美丽的彩色玻璃窗下，这位艺术家捕捉到了淘气的匹诺曹和他的非凡冒险行为，并为这部经典著作注入了新的活力。作为一个全球偶像和对尘世的比喻，这本书无疑是儿童文学的杰作，并对世界文化产生了巨大影响。意大利哲学家本纳德多·克罗齐(Benedetto Croce)（1866- 1952）将其誉为意大利文学史上最伟大的作品之一。自首次出版以来，它已经衍生了数百个新版本、各种舞台剧、商品、电视剧和电影，包括沃尔特·迪士尼（Walt Disney）标志性的动画版本以及撒谎者的长鼻子等家喻户晓的形象。
卡洛·科洛迪国家基金会（Carlo Collodi National Foundation）在二十世纪九十年代末按照联合国教科文组织（UNESCO）的资料开展了广泛的研究。研究表明这本书已被译成260余种语言，截至2018年已被译成300多种语言。
英 文 版
The Adventures of Pinocchio by Carlo Collodi
Pinocchio is a 2019 fantasy film, co-written, directed and produced by the italian film director Matteo Garrone, based on the 1883 book “The Adventures of Pinocchio” by Italian author Carlo Lorenzini (24 November 1826 – 26 October 1890), better known by the pen name Carlo Collodi. The film will be screened in Chinese cinemas from 1 June onwards. The Adventures of Pinocchio also simply known as Pinocchio, is a novel for children written in Tuscany, the region of the City of Florence, in central Italy.
It is about the malicious adventures of an animated marionette named Pinocchio and his father, a poor woodcarver named Geppetto. Pinocchio is a marionette who gains wisdom through a series of misadventures which lead him to becoming a real human as reward for his good deeds.
It was originally published in a serial form as The Story of a Puppet in the Newspaper for children (Giornale per i bambini), one of the earliest Italian weekly magazines for children, starting from 7 July 1881, when in China there was the Manchu led Qing dynasty. The story stopped after nearly 4 months and 8 episodes at Chapter 15, but by popular demand from readers, the episodes were resumed on 16 February 1882. In February 1883, the story was published in a single book. Since then, the spread of Pinocchio on the main markets for children’s books of the time has been continuous and uninterrupted, and it was met with enthusiastic reviews worldwide.
This is the beginning of the The Adventures of Pinocchio: «Centuries ago there lived– “A king!” my little readers will say immediately. No, children, you are mistaken. Once upon a time there was a piece of wood. It was not an expensive piece of wood. Far from it. Just a common block of firewood, one of those thick, solid logs that are put on the fire in winter to make cold rooms cozy and warm». And it is truly outstanding, revolutionary.
The book tells the astonishing tale of how the old woodcarver Geppetto made a disobedient puppet boy that could talk, dance and turn somersaults has been a much-loved story since it was first written more than 130 years ago.
Since then, readers young and old have been captivated by Collodi’s fantastic fairy-tale world, in which anything can happen and excitement waits round every corner. The exuberant young urchin Pinocchio ignores the advice of his tender-hearted father and sets off into the world in search of adventure. Along the way he encounters many remarkable characters – including the nefarious Fox and Cat, a wise-talking cricket and a beautiful azure-haired fairy – and lurches from one predicament to another. Happily, by the end of the book, this obstinate wooden hero finally learns his lesson and obtains his heart’s desire – becoming a real boy.
In the following handsome stained glass window the artist captured the rascally Pinocchio and his extraordinary escapades, breathing new excitement into this enchanting classic.
A universal icon and a metaphor of the human condition, the book is considered a undoubted masterpiece of children’s literature and has had great impact on world culture. Italian Philosopher Benedetto Croce (1866- 1952) (本纳德多克罗齐) reputed it as one of the greatest works of Italian literature. Since its first publication, it has inspired hundreds of new editions, stage plays, merchandising, television series and movies, such as Walt Disney’s iconic animated version, and commonplace ideas such as a liar’s long nose.
According to extensive research done by the Carlo Collodi National Foundation (Fondazione Nazionale Carlo Collodi) in the late 1990s and based on UNESCO sources, the book has been adapted in over 260 languages worldwide, while as of 2018 it has been translated into over 300 languages.
That makes it the most translated non-religious book in the world and one of the best-selling books ever published, with over 80 million copies sold in recent years (the total sales since its first publication are unknown because of the many public domain re-releases begun in 1940). It remains the most translated Italian book and, after the Bible, the most widely read.
Non-conformism, the desire to make a critique of culture is combined with the form of humor. When Pinocchio feels satisfied, at the end of the story, he becomes that petty bourgeois that all of Collodi’s humorous literature has made fun of, because the patriot Collodi, twice a volunteer in the Italian Wars of Independence, in 1848 and 1860, with the Tuscan army, wanted to criticize the betraying of the spirit of childhood, but also the spirit of a country and its youth. There is no childhood myth in Collodi, which tells of childhood as it is, experience as adventure and adventure as experience. In 1923 the italian writer Giuseppe Prezzolini (1882-1982) declared that if Pinocchio’s beauty had been understood, Italy would have been understood. Pinocchio seems to be representative of a larger entity: Italy and the Italians. References to a consolidated literary tradition abound in the text as well as to religious allegories.
There are many ideas for a psycho-pedagogical reading of the adventures of Pinocchio, as if they were placed there to lead the reader along a path that follows the frantic race of the puppet. The character of the subject-puppet is linked in a complex way to the process of secularization, to the displacement, that is, from religious categories to cultural, secular categories.
Collodi’s novel requires us to consider the revolutionary environment evoked by the author himself, an environment that comes to light through the brotherhood of Pinocchio and not through references to the paternalistic tradition. The first series of Pinocchio’s brothers comes (obviously, given the welcome given to him in the Mangiafuoco theater) from the world of puppets. Pinocchio was born in a world of lies, in which he is, as is well known, the greatest liar; surpassed, perhaps, only by Collodi himself.
The nose, of course, betrays the confidentiality or secrecy of Pinocchio’s lies. In fact, two kinds of lies seem to be at play in the text. On the one hand, the lies of the villains and of the world in which Pinocchio was born: a world linked to the theater, or understood as such, in which the subjects are required to play a part. These subjects, when they lie, do not grow their noses. In reality, these actors (of which the Cat and the Fox are emblematic) are condemned to move in a world of fiction: they are nothing but “fictional” and Pinocchio will have to learn not to believe their stories. Pinocchio seems to take seriously the old accusation that Italy is nothing more than an invented geographical entity.
Pinocchio’s initial passive trust, or credulity, must therefore be converted into a meaningful chain of substitutions, independently conceived, the last of which sees Pinocchio’s transformation into a boy. This is the paradox that lies at the heart of the text because Lorenzini became fascinated by the idea of using an amiable, rascally character as a means of expressing his own convictions through allegory.
一份支持白俄罗斯基督徒的呼吁书于2020年11月25日发布，由“来自俄罗斯和各国的天主教和东正教牧师以及教徒”签署。它含有团结、支持和安慰的话语，是从Pravoslavie i Mir网站（“东正教和世界”，其中Mir也指“和平”）传播的。
Vatican diplomacy and Belarus
Vatican diplomats seem anxious to preserve amicable relations with Belarus. Belarus is a former Soviet republic, located between Russia and Poland. President Lukashenko, a former Soviet Army officer, has been the country’s leader since Belarus regained independence. He is strongly pro-Russian, suspicious of other foreign influences, and intolerant of political dissent at home.
On 15 March 2021 Belarus President Aleksandr Lukashenko has congratulated Pope Francis on the anniversary of his election and wished Pope Francis strong health and many years of pastoral service to eternal Christian values: faith, hope and love.
“The relations of Minsk and Vatican have always relied on rich history and profound respect. The experience of the recent months proves that the existing level of mutual understanding helps us find solutions to any questions in the atmosphere of trust. Your selfless assistance and commitment to compromise show that the Holy See is taking care of Belarusian believers, is interested in the strengthening of the society,” the message of greetings read.
The head of state remarked that the unity of views in Belarus and Vatican helps promote joint initiatives to maintain regional stability and interfaith dialogue, creates a foundation for support in international organizations.
“I fully agreed with your words that brotherhood is an accommodating arm. In Belarus we are now promoting the values of brotherhood: peace, justice and respect. We will always have a place in our hearts and a loaf of fragrant bread with the sign of the Cross for those who share these ideals,” the president Aleksandr Lukashenko stressed.
After the August 9th, 2020 election in which Lukashenko claimed victory in the presidential election with 80% of the vote ,protesters in Minsk have been demanding the resignation of Lukashenko, who has ruled the country since 1994. His challenger, Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya, disapproved the electoral officials after they said she had earned just 10% of votes. Fearing imprisonment, she then fled to Lithuania.
During the protests, the Belarusian bishops quoted the Gospel and the social doctrine of the Church indicating Pope Francis and his request for those in power to listen to their citizens and guarantee respect for human rights and civil liberties.
On the other hand, Vatican diplomacy underlined during the critical situation in Belarus that the fundamental purpose of the Church is to announce the Gospel for the edification of the Kingdom of God, which is not governed by the principles of this world and has no claims on earthly power. For this reason, the Church does not carry out state functions and cannot in any way be exploited for political purposes.
The bishops therefore invited mutual support and solidarity to build a united and undivided Belarus.
An appeal in support of the Christians of Belarus was released on November 25, 2020 and it was signed by “Catholic and Orthodox priests and lay people from Russia and various nations. It contained words of solidarity, support and consolation and was spread from the Pravoslavie i Mir site (“Orthodoxy and the World”, where Mir also means “Peace”).
It recalled that the synod of the Belarusian Orthodox Church had also addressed the authorities with an invitation to stop the violence against peaceful protests (when the local exarch was Metropolitan Pavel, later replaced by Venjamin).
One of the moments of friction between the Vatican and Belarus has been the case of Archbishop Tadeusz Kondrusiewicz, who was denied entry for four months in Minsk.In fact, on 31 August 2020, Kandrusievič was prevented from entering Belarus after visiting Poland, despite being a Belarusian citizen. Kondrusiewicz had told an interviewer that “There is reason to believe that the [9 August 2020] election was dishonest”. Archbishop Tadeusz Kondrusiewicz resigned from his post on January 3,2021 the day he turned 75. Pope Francis accepted his resignation and appointed an apostolic administrator.
Actually In November 2020, Archbishop Ante Jozic, the papal nuncio in Minsk, met with President Lukashenko and delivered a message from Pope Francis congratulating the strongman on his re-election.President Alexander Lukashenko of Belarus met on December 17 2020 with Archbishop Claudio Gugerotti, who was acting as a papal representative to discuss the exile of Archbishop Tadeusz Kondrusiewicz of Minsk. Lukashenko expressed his pleasure at meeting Archbishop Gugerotti, a former nuncio to Belarus, and voiced his admiration for Pope Francis. The details of their conversation, however, were not disclosed.
To conclude, the Holy See still plays a significant role in the contemporary international relations. The Vatican City State is important as a territory. The territory allows the pope to perform his church duties and he cannot be manipulated. On the contrary, the Holy See structure is crucial for diplomatic relations. The Holy See apparatus is much bigger, because they take care not only about earthly issue, but also about ecclesiastic. Also in Belarus the Holy See used his role of a neutral mediator and also a religious leader. Under the terms of some topic, they are still very conservative or rigid but in spite of it, Vatican assumed very clear position to solution of conflicts and problems.
历史上第一届奥运会于公元前 776 年（相当于中国的东周初期）在希腊举办，至今已举办292届。据记载最后一届是在公元393年。奥运会被基督教视为异教节日，且受希腊的罗马人的影响，奥运会的社会作用被削弱。（相当于中国十六国时代）狄奥多西一世皇帝和米兰的盎博罗削主教联手明令禁止开展奥运会。
2018 年 6 月，教宗面对意大利游泳运动员时谈到：“你们证明了，通过艰苦训练可以实现目标，与此同时也伴随着巨大的牺牲与某些舍弃。你们所做的一切给大家上了一堂生命课，尤其是对你们同龄人而言。”而奥运会和体育运动正是教宗说的“生命课”。
Lo spirito Olimpico e i I XXIV Giochi olimpici invernali di Pechino 2022
I XXIV Giochi olimpici invernali ( 第二十四届冬季奥林匹克运动会), noti anche come Pechino 2022, si svolgeranno a Pechino, capitale della Cina, dal 4 al 20 febbraio 2022. Nella stessa località si terranno i XIII Giochi paralimpici invernali.
Dopo aver organizzato i Giochi della XXIX Olimpiade, Pechino diventerà la prima città ad aver ospitato sia i Giochi olimpici estivi che quelli invernali. Oltre che a Pechino, le gare sono previste anche nella contea di Yanqing, a circa 90 km dalla città olimpica, e nella città-prefettura di Zhangjiakou, distante circa 220 km. La città sarà inoltre la seconda capitale, dopo Oslo nel 1952, ad ospitare le Olimpiadi invernali.
Il programma dei Giochi olimpici invernali di Pechino 2022 prevede l’apertura il 4 febbraio 2022, mentre la chiusura dei Giochi è prevista il 20 febbraio successivo.
Dal punto di vista delle relazioni internazionali le Olimpiadi sono sempre un momento cruciale e in questo momento il significato dello spirito olimpico è fondamentale per la ricomposizione di un’atmosfera di pace e di unità a livello mondiale dopo la pandemia. Lo sport è stato, ed è, uno straordinario strumento con cui promuovere un’inestinguibile concezione di prestigio. Può servire a rafforzare quella reputazione internazionale cui ogni nazione ambisce. Può certificare il pieno raggiungimento di uno status di potenza che ottiene nella grandiosa organizzazione dell’evento sportivo il suo punto culminante.
A proposito delle Olimpiadi, Papa Francesco ha ricordato che nell’antica Grecia, dove nacque l’esperienza delle Olimpiadi, “si prevedeva addirittura la tregua dalle guerre nel tempo delle competizioni. Ogni quattro anni, il mondo ha la possibilità di fermarsi per chiedersi come sta, come stanno gli altri, qual è il termometro di tutto. Non per nulla certe gesta olimpiche sono diventate simbolo di una lotta: pensiamo al razzismo, all’esclusione, alla diversità. Celebrare le Olimpiadi è una delle forme più alte di ecumenismo umano, di condivisione della fatica per un mondo migliore”.
La prima Olimpiade della storia si svolse in Grecia nel 776 a.C. (In Cina primo periodo della Dinastia Zhou orientale ) e da allora si contarono bel 292 edizioni. L’ultima edizione di cui si hanno tracce è nel 393 d. C. L’influenza del cristianesimo che considerava tale evento come una festa pagana e l’influenza dei romani in Grecia indebolirono il ruolo dei giochi olimpici nella società e l’imperatore Teodosio I, assieme al Vescovo di Milano Ambrogio, ( Epoca dei Sedici Regni in Cina) li vietò definitivamente.
Il nome Olimpiade deriva da Olimpia, la città dove si svolgevano i giochi che erano in onore di Zeus, si svolgevano ogni quattro anni e il periodo tra le due olimpiadi era detto “Ekecheiria”, che letteralmente vuol dire “le mani ferme” ed indica quindi la tregua generale che veniva bandita in tutta la Grecia.
Sempre Papa Francesco ha sottolineato che “lo sport è uno di quei linguaggi universali che supera le differenze culturali, sociali, religiose e fisiche, e riesce a unire le persone, rendendole partecipi dello stesso gioco e protagoniste insieme di vittorie e sconfitte”. Anche il Comitat o Olimpico Internazionale ha aggiunto la parola “insieme” al mottoolimpico “più veloce, più alto e più forte”.
Sempre Papa Francesco ha più volte sottolineato il potenziale educativo dello sport per i giovani, l’importanza del “mettersi in gioco” e del fair play, come pure – e lo ha fatto anche nei giorni di ricovero all’Ospedale Policlinico Universitario “Agostino Gemelli” di Roma – il valore della sconfitta, perché la grandezza di una persona la si vede più quando cade che quando trionfa, nello sport come nella vita. Sul tema, il Papa aveva osservato a inizio anno in una lunga intervista alla Gazzetta dello Sport: “La vittoria contiene un brivido che è persino difficile da descrivere, ma anche la sconfitta ha qualcosa di meraviglioso (…) Da certe sconfitte nascono delle bellissime vittorie, perché individuato lo sbaglio, si accende la sete del riscatto. Mi verrebbe da dire che chi vince non sa cosa si perde”. In un tempo segnato da fratture e polarizzazioni di ogni tipo, per il Papa lo sport può quindi essere, come ricordato agli atleti Special Olympics, “uno di quei linguaggi universali che supera le differenze culturali e sociali, religiose e fisiche, e riesce a unire le persone, rendendole partecipi dello stesso gioco e protagoniste insieme di vittorie e sconfitte”
“Mostrate a quali mete si può arrivare attraverso la fatica dell’allenamento, che comporta un grande impegno e anche delle rinunce. Tutto questo – ha detto il Papa ai nuotatori italiani nel giugno del 2018 – costituisce una lezione di vita soprattutto per i vostri coetanei”.
Lo sport olimpico e lo sport in generale come “lezione di vita”.
Le Olimpiadi invernali di Pechino sono un’ulteriore opportunità, per l’umanità che coltiva la speranza, per promuovere la cooperazione internazionale contro il Covid-19 e per promuovere, tra gli altri importanti colloqui tra nazioni, anche i negoziati sino-vaticani.
La competizione sportiva è ambito prediletto di confronto e sfida tra sistemi e ideologie contrapposti: tra soggetti che ambiscono a rappresentare un modello per il resto del mondo. Nel successo sportivo i diversi modelli di governo contano di trovare conferma della loro rivendicazione di superiorità o universalità. Una simile logica alimentò la feroce competizione sportiva tra Stati Uniti e Unione Sovietica durante gli anni della Guerra Fredda.
I Giochi Invernali di Pechino armonizzeranno sicuramente l’entusiasmo generato dal momento sportivo – rituale che ha acquisito nel tempo una valenza quasi religiosa – e l’interesse commerciale che ha rivelato sempre la capacità di mettere a tacere polemiche e dissensi. Questo non perché il momento olimpico rappresenti una sospensione della politica, come vorrebbe la tradizione di de Coubertin. Si tratta, invece, della prova della intrinseca, ineluttabile politicità dello sport contemporaneo. E che sia “buona politica” per il benessere dell’intera umanità!
Speriamo che oggi le Olimpiadi diventino sempre più un’esaltazione del bene e della bellezza per la cura di un’umanità calpestata dalla malattia e dalle disuguaglianze. Le Olimpiadi di Pechino potrebbero diventare un modello di cooperazione internazionale nella lotta alla pandemia. Che le Olimpiadi invernali di Pechino possano essere questo: una sfida dell’umanità verso la cooperazione e l’amicizia.
因为专门研究额我略十五世在位期间的历史背景，所以会议的政治主题的尤引人瞩目。这位教宗短暂在位时正值社会向新世界秩序转变。会上，来自意大利松德里奥的Gloria Camesasca、罗马的Anthony Majanlahti和库兹敦大学的Pierette Kulpa讨论了这位教宗的政治政策，尤其是外交政策。
早在17世纪，巴拉丁图书馆（Balaliotheca Palatina）被称为“图书馆之母”。今天，“巴拉丁图书馆（Balaliotheca Palatina）”这个术语与1623年运输到罗马的海德堡书籍同义。
International Online Conference focused on Pope Gregory XV
On 5th february 2021, the College of Visual and Performing Arts of Kutztown University in the USA organized the International Online Conference whose title was: «Religion, Politics and Culture in the Papacy of Gregory XV Ludovisi (1621-1623)».
The Conference co-organizer was T. Corey Brennan, Professor, Classics, of Rutgers University.
Kutztown of Pennsylvania and Rutgers of Newark Universities, among the oldest Universities in the USA, have been interested in a Pope who reigned only two years.
The Conference had five sessions with different time zones. Two sessions were focused on culture with speakers, among others, from American University of Rome, Ben-Gurion University Israel, Teramo University Italy, Rutgers University, USA.
The presentations of the session concerned with Religion were performed by professors of the Institute for Advanced Jesuit Studies – Boston College, University of Belgrade, University of Barcelona Spain, Belarussian State University, Belarussia.
The Session focused on politics was particularly interesting because it was focused on the historical background of the papacy of Gregory XV, a short papacy in a moment when there was a shift toward a New World Order. Gloria Camesasca from Sondrio, Italy, Carlo Marino, Anthony Majanlahti from Rome and Pierette Kulpa from Kutztown University talked about the Pope’s politicy, in particular foreign policy.
When Gregory XV reigned in Europe in China there was the end of the Ming dynasty when the contacts with the Europeans were so great that Ming court allowed several orders of Christian Jesuits to settle in the heart of the Empire.
At the time of Gregory XV’ s accession to the pontificate, Europe was experiencing the great conflict that broke out with the so called Thirty Years War, one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history. Begun in 1618 as a war between Protestant (a form of christianity originated in Germany as a movement against the errors in the Catholic Church) and Catholic States in the fragmented Holy Roman Empire ( a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe) , it progressively developed into a more general conflict involving most of the great European powers and killed eight million people. War increasingly had a religious connotation.
The conflict ended in 1648 with the Peace of Westphalia, which inaugurated a new international order because scholars of international relations have identified the treaties signed as the origin of principles crucial to modern international relations, including the inviolability of borders and non-interference in the domestic affairs of sovereign States.
Gregory XV was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 9 February 1621 to his death in 1623 that is in the first period of the Thirty Years War (1618-23).
After all, Gregory XV interfered little in European politics, beyond assisting Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, and the Catholic League against the Protestants.
During the pontificate of Gregory XV the will of Rome was to ensure that the Imperial Crown remained in Catholic hands and the Pope supported the line of the Habsburgs of Austria: for this purpose it was necessary to consolidate the power of that dynasty within the hereditary states and restore imperial authority.
A great international and diplomatic mission symbolizes the papacy of Gregory XV. It was the transfer of the Palatine Library from the city of Heidelberg, in Germany, to Rome, where it was merged with the Vatican Library.
The Library of the Electoral Palatinate was fed by different sources, and was one of the richest libraries of Europe.
The removal of the Bibliotheca Palatina was its salvation. It was thus spared destruction through the fires of the war particularly cruel in Heidelberg in1693, at the time of the Qing dynasty.
The transportation of the Library started on 14 February, 1623. Until that date the books had been lowered from the gallery of the Heiliggeist Church, notwithstanding the resistance of the Heidelberg population.
The books were packed in crates which were nailed up. Sixty soldiers took the more or less sixty goods wagons with more than 8000 volumes to Rome. It was a true diplomatic mission during one of the bloodiest periods of the European history.
The man in charge of the mission was the pontifical commissioner Leo Allatius, the Expert for Greek at the Vatican Library, a scholar of Greek origin and custodian of the Vatican library, who was sent to Heidelberg for the transportation of the Library to Rome.
In August 1623, 3,700 medieval manuscripts and 13,000 prints from Heidelberg entered the Vatican Library.
The Bibliotheca Palatina was referred to as the «mother of all libraries» as long ago as the 17° century. Today the term Bibliotheca Palatina is identical with the Heidelberg books transported to Rome in 1623.
你是否想过，为什么选择12月25日来庆祝耶稣基督的诞生？ 奇怪的是，有一个古老的异教——密特拉教，可以追溯到3000多年前的宗教，也在12月25日庆祝教内“救世主”的诞生。因此，关于圣诞节的起源，有一种说法是源于一个专门为太阳而设的节日，即太阳神节（Sol invictus），象征着不可征服、不可战胜的星光，它将永远打败黑暗，是那些敬仰密特拉神之神圣奥秘的人的夜晚之光。这个节日慢慢从异教的太阳神节演变成纪念耶稣诞生。
The Basilica of St Clement in Rome and the story of the God Mithras
Telling the story of an incredible monument in Rome paradoxically means going back in time to an era that goes from the Emperor Huizong of Song to the time of the Longshan culture that flourished in northeastern China. The Basilica of St Clement in Rome was built in 1108 AD, the time of the Emperor Huizong of Song (7 June 1082 – 4 June 1135), the eighth emperor of the Song dynasty in China.
Once inside, it’s possible to admire the beautifully painted ceiling or the original golden mosaic in the apse. Taking it all in, it is not surprising to learn that the Basilica is widely known for its ancient art. It is the second largest collection of Early Medieval wall paintings in Rome.
What lies two storeys below street level? Excavations under the present basilica carried out in 1857 uncovered the original fourth-century basilica directly underneath (Later Yan Dynasty 后燕 in China).
At an even lower level, the remains of a late first century (time of the Xin dynasty 新朝 in China) structure were discovered. This structure went through significant modification toward the end of the second century to make possible its use as a Mithreum, a temple dedicated to the cult of the god Mithras.
Who was Mithras? For over three hundred years the rulers of the Roman Empire worshipped the god Mithras. Known throughout Europe and Asia by the names Mithra, Mitra, Meitros, Mihr, Mehr, and Meher, the veneration of this god began around 3000 BCE in Persia (time of the Longshan culture that flourished in northeastern China).
Towards the end of the fourth century A.D. ( Later Yan Dynasty 后燕 in China), the christian faith became the official religion of the Roman empire and pagan sects, including the cult of Mithras, were declared illegal. At some of the mithraeums that have been found below churches, such as the San Clemente Mithraeum, the ground plan of the church above was made in a way to symbolize Christianity’s domination of Mithraism.
Have you ever wondered why December 25th was chosen to celebrate the birth of Christ? Strange enough there is an ancient pagan religion, Mithraism, which dates back over 3000 years that also celebrated the birth of their “savior” on December 25th.
So at the roots of Christmas there is a festival dedicated to the sun, the Sol invictus, the unconquered and therefore also invincible star, the one that will always defeat the darkness, the light of the night for those initiated into the sacred mysteries of the god Mithras. From pagan festival of the Sun to commemoration of the birth of Jesus.
Many elements in the story of Jesus’ life and birth are either coincidental or adoptions from earlier and contemporary pagan religions. The most obviously similar of these is Mithraism.
The religion of Mithras from Persia spread westward from Eastern Roman provinces. Mithraism was very popular among legionaries (of all ranks), and the members of the more marginal social groups who were not Roman citizens: freedmen, slaves, and merchants from various provinces. No women were allowed. The temples of Mithras were always an underground cave, featuring a relief of Mithras killing the bull.
Although inspired by Iranian worship of the Zoroastrian divinity (yazata) Mithra, the Roman Mithras is linked to a new and unique conception. The mysteries were popular among the Imperial Roman army from about the 1st to the 4th century ce.
Worshippers of Mithras had a complex system of seven grades of initiation and communal ritual meals. Initiates called themselves those “united by the handshake”. They met in the underground temples, now called mithraea (singular mithraeum), which survive in large numbers. The cult had its centre in Rome, and was popular throughout the western half of the empire, as far south as Roman Africa and Numidia, as far north as Roman Britain, and to a lesser extent in Roman Syria in the east. According to the myth, the God Mithras is born from a rock. He is depicted in his temples hunting down and slaying a bull. He then meets with the sun, who kneels to him. The two then shake hands, and dine on bull parts. Little is known about the beliefs associated with this.
Mithraism is viewed as a rival of early Christianity. In the 4th century, Mithraists faced persecution from Christians and the religion was subsequently suppressed and eliminated in the Roman empire by the end of the century.
Numerous archaeological finds, including meeting places, monuments and artifacts, have contributed to modern knowledge about Mithraism throughout the Roman Empire. The iconic scenes of Mithras show him being born from a rock, slaughtering a bull, and sharing a banquet with the god Sol (the Sun). About 420 sites have yielded materials related to the cult. Among the items found are about 1000 inscriptions, 700 examples of the bull-killing scene, and about 400 other monuments.
It has been estimated that there would have been at least 680 mithraea in the city of Rome. No written narratives or theology from the religion survive; limited information can be derived from the inscriptions and brief or passing references in Greek and Latin literature. Interpretation of the physical evidence remains problematic and contested. The term “Mithraism” is a modern convention. Writers of the Roman era referred to it by phrases such as “Mithraic mysteries”, “mysteries of Mithras” or “mysteries of the Persians”.
In the course of time, the fourth-century AD Basilica of St. Clement was enhanced and decorated by a number of beautiful frescoes and survived until the beginning of the twelfth century when it was found that the structure of the buiding was in poor conditions and unsafe. The Basilica was abandoned filled in with debris to the top of the pillars and on this new foundation the twelfth-century Basilica of St.Clement was built.
齐贝洛的后臀尖是用紧挨猪膀胱的猪腿制作而成。Tigella是一种传统的，圆盘形意大利面包，外脆里软。用特殊粘土模具烤制，通常抹上大量的由肥熏肉片、迷迭香、大蒜、和帕马森干酪制成的调味酱。蓝布鲁斯科是最著名的用于酿制红葡萄酒的葡萄的名称，也是用这种葡萄酿制的葡萄酒的名称。葡萄及葡萄酒来自艾米利亚-罗马涅4个地区。为结束这篇简介，最后一点，也是很重要的一点，费拉拉胡椒面包是一种用杏仁、榛子、果脯点缀的传统意大利圣诞节水果蛋糕。用可可、蜂蜜、肉桂、丁香及黑胡椒（有时使用）调味，因此，名称为“胡椒面包”。它的起源可以追溯至15世纪（中国明朝）。据传说，一个修道院隐居的修女发明了这种蛋糕，送给当时的名人，包括教皇，这水果蛋糕也被称为“pan del papa”，意思是教皇面包.
Emilia- Romagna, its history and cuisine: an overview
Emilia- Romagna is one of the 20 administrative regions of Italy, situated in the northeast section of the country, comprising the historical regions of Emilia and Romagna. Its capital is Bologna. It has an area of 22,446 km2 , and about 4.4 million inhabitants.
Emilia-Romagna is one of the wealthiest and most developed regions in Europe, with the third highest gross domestic product per capita in Italy.
Emilia – Romagna has always been the stronghold of communist power in Italy. It was certainly not a region where heavy industry dominated, but the small business, artisans, sharecroppers and laborers. Before 1860, however, it had been part of the Vatican state and the ardent anticlericalism that resulted from the papal abuse of temporal power, worldly power, as contrasted with spiritual power, certainly played its part.
The laborers’ leagues, then, had a long tradition of social unrest. By the time of the World War I, also called First World War or Great War, an international conflict that in 1914–18 embroiled most of the nations of Europe along with Russia, the United State and other countries like China which participated in World War I from 1917 to 1918 in an alliance with the Entente Powers, an imposing socialist and cooperative tradition had been established in this Italian Region.
After the fall of the Fascist regime in Italy in 1943 it was the Communists who took the place of the Socialists. This was because Communists had played a preponderant role in the Emilia-Romagna Resistance against the Nazi-fascists and they owned the indirect popular credit enjoyed by the USSR as a liberator of Nazism, and finally because thanks to them the strategy of social alliances was successful.
Emilia – Romagna was, in fact, still a predominantly agricultural region and the communist commitment in the struggle of the sharecroppers was a crucial moment in their policy; the same can be said for the attention paid to the Apennine peasants, mainly small Catholic owners.
Progressively the communists also obtained control over the cooperative movement, very strong in the region even before fascism and communist women also played a great role, responsible for some initiatives of great resonance at national level: hospitality to poor children in Rome, Naples and the mountainous areas of their region and the reception of displaced people.
The cuisine of Emilia Romagna is rich and delicious, often with its recipes that are symbols of Italy on the table. Starting with fresh egg pasta, filled or not, such as traditional Bologna tagliatelle, Tortellini and so on.
Tortellini, ring-shaped pasta stuffed with a mix of meat (pork loin, raw prosciutto, mortadella) and Parmigiano Reggiano cheese.
Parmigiano Reggiano cheese is a granular cheese produced from cow’s milk and aged at least 12 months.
Among the most famous appetizers are the fried gnocco and the scarpazzone, a savory pie.
Croutons with bacon colonnade: a winter appetizer.
Fried gnocco ( dumpling) with slices of cotechino (large pork sausage requiring slow cooking)
Scarpazzone, a savory pie prepared in the countryside from late spring until november, that is the period of growth of the chard.
Several are the first courses in the Emilia and Romagna tradition and of course it is not possible to exhaust the culinary theme in an article like this which is only intended to be an introduction.
Among the first courses it is important to remember the Passatelli in broth which are one of the typical tasty first courses of the gastronomic tradition of Emilia Romagna. Simple and quick to prepare, they are an ideal Sunday family dish. Passatelli are made with eggs, breadcrumbs and parmesan, with the addition of nutmeg and lemon zest, which give the characteristic aroma.. They resemble cylinders or large short spaghetti.
“Anolini” from Parma, a city in the northern Italian region of Emilia-Romagna famous for its architecture, music, art, prosciutto (ham), cheese and surrounding countryside. “Anolini” is the word that in Parma means a little rounded stuffed pasta, while in the rest of the Emilia Romagna region is called cappelletti。
Tiny dumplings made with flour and breadcrumbs with a thick tomato flavored sauce made with a base of onions, lard, and mashed borlotti beans is another course to taste in this wonderful region.
Among the second courses the Bolognese cutlet is a very tasty second course with a base of breaded veal loin and garnished with raw ham and grated cheese and sometimes with truffles.
Pork is one of the typical main courses of the interior of the region, while on the coast the fish is king. The seafood dishes of the coast range from oily fish (anchovy, sardine, mackerel, etc.), which is a classic of the Mediterranean, to to the real local specialties such as the mussels or the eels.
Bologna is famous for its mortadella, a delicious sausage made with a mixture of finely ground pork and pieces of lard flavored with spices, that locals proudly use as a key ingredient in many creative dishes.
Many italian unique products world famous are from Emilia Romagna such as balsamic vinegar, Parma ham, Culatello di Zibello and Lambrusco.
Balsamic vinegar is a very dark, concentrated, and intensely flavoured vinegar, made wholly or partially from grape must: freshly crushed grape juice with all the skins, seeds and stems.
Parma ham is a cured leg of pork with pure sea salt in order to keep the meat as sweet-tasting and as supple as possible. The curing is controlled carefully so that the ham absorbs only enough salt to preserve it.
Culatello di Zibello is produced from the pork leg stuffed into the pig’s bladder.
Tigella is a traditional, disk-shaped Italian bread that is crispy on the exterior and soft on the interior. It is baked in special clay molds, and usually slathered with a spread made from lardo, rosemary, garlic, and Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese.
Lambrusco is the name of the the most famous red wine grape and of a wine made principally from said grape. The grapes and the wine originate from four zones in Emilia-Romagna.
To finish this brief overview, last but not least, the peppered bread of Ferrara which is a traditional Italian Christmas fruitcake studded with whole almonds, hazelnuts, and candied fruit. It is flavored with cocoa, honey, cinnamon, cloves, and (sometimes) black pepper – hence the name pampepato.
Its origins can be traced back to the 15th century (Ming dynasty in China). According to legend, the cloistered nuns of a monastery created the cake to be sent to the great personages of the time, including the pope and this fruitcake is also known as pan del papa, meaning bread of the pope.
天津意租界（拼音：Tiānjīn Yì Zūjiè，意大利语：Concessione italiana di Tientsin）是中国天津中部（以前罗马化为Tientsin）的一小块地域（租界），1901年至1943年由意大利王国控制，1947年正式交还中国。
北京和天津邮局发行的邮票一直使用到1922年底，之后军队开始使用未套印的意大利邮票，从1925年起，取消在明信片和信封上套印载有日期和BATTAG. ITALIAN IN CHINA TIENTSIN字样的双圆圈印章。用于通信的信件背面是圣马克的带翅膀的狮子和审查小组，开头字样为经审查人员验证（VERIFIED FOR CENSORS）。
关于中国固定船舶的圆形印章的取消，设想日期和R. NAVE LIBIA（皇家船利比亚）或R.N. SEB. CABOTO（皇家船SEB. 卡博托）字样，给出两个简化的例子。我们还发现，中国邮票广泛用于国际运输，在这种情况下，几乎总是通过穿越西伯利亚地区的运输。通常在通信上，我们有带有国家盾徽和中国天津的意大利皇家邮局（REGIE POSTE BATTAG. IN CHINA TIENTSIN）字样的椭圆形的特许经营标记。
甚至连意大利第65步兵师“萨沃伊掷弹兵师”（意大利语：Granatieri di Savoia）在中国短暂停留期间，也有一个专门的双圈印章，该印章注有日期和文字：萨沃伊远东掷弹兵营（BATTAGLIONE GRANATIERI SAVOIA E.O.），还有一个椭圆形的可扣除标记。在中国的意大利军营有一张团的明信片。
An Italian Post office in China
During the nineteenth century the Kingdom of Italy had opened consulates in China, in Canton and Shanghai, with foreign consuls as representatives. In October 1866, therefore, a first trade and navigation treaty was signed with China, thus consolidating the commercial and diplomatic relations of the newborn Kingdom of Italy with the distant Asian Empire.
The presence of Italians residing in China was, however, rather small (just 22 people in 1872 and 131 in 1891, mostly in Shanghai); for this reason, and for a general lack of interest at the political level, only in 1878 Ferdinando De Luca, the Italian consul, was appointed resident in Beijing (previously the Italian consuls resided in Japan).
The presence of Italians was almost always limited to diplomatic and military personnel (for example, in 1935 the Italian civil community numbered only 150 people).
Despite the small numbers of the Italian presence in Tientsin, as early as 1900 a military post office for the Italian troops stationed in the area was functioning which, in 1902, was opened to the public with overprinted TIEN-SIN and BEIJING stamps that were for the exclusive use of staff diplomatic.
In 1900, during the Boxer Uprising or Yihetuan Movement, an armed insurrection in China between 1899 and 1901, towards the end of the Qing dynasty, a group of Italian marine riflemen intervened in China. On that occasion the second lieutenant Ermanno Carlotto, who was in command of a squad engaged in the defense of the Tientsin Military School, died.
The Boxer Uprising was initiated against the increasing foreign intervention, including Christian missionary work in the country, by the Militia United in Righteousness (Yìhéquán), known in English as the Boxers because many of their members had practised Chinese martial arts, also referred to in the Western world at the time as Chinese Boxing.
Later the international expedition occupied Tientsin and Beijing and the peace treaty of September 1901 imposed severe conditions of economic and territorial compensation on China. The Kingdom of Italy had a commercial concession that was made official on 7 June 1902: in the city of Tientsin (today’s Tianjin) there was a territorial concession of about 46 hectares, a legation in nearby Beijing and the use of the port of Shanghai. The War of the Boxers favored the irreversible crisis of the Celestial Empire which finally collapsed in 1912 when the Republic was proclaimed. In August 1917, China entered the world conflict alongside the Entente Powers, a coalition of countries led by France, Britain, Russia, Italy, Japan and the United States against the Central Powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria and their colonies during the First World War (1914–1918). This period was followed in China by a long period of political instability marked by a climate of civil war that practically lasted with various truces until 1949 with the establishment of the People’s Republic of China.
The Italian concession of Tianjin (Chinese: 天津意租界; pinyin: Tiānjīn Yì Zūjiè, Italian: Concessione italiana di Tientsin) was a small territory (concession) in central Tianjin (formerly romanized as Tientsin), China, controlled by the Kingdom of Italy between 1901 and 1943, officially ceded to China in 1947.
From 1901, the Italian troops stationed in China had a military postal service at their disposal, which provided for the use of the Italian Kingdom’s stamps. On 20 September 1917 this service was replaced by the Beijing and Tientsin Post Offices with services reserved for diplomatic personnel, garrison soldiers, crews of royal stationary ships, and Italian civilians residing in China.
In the Beijing and Tientsin Post Offices Italian stamps were used and subsequently overprinted on the spot in local currency. Some of these stamps have had a limited circulation and constitute some of the most valuable stamps in an Italian collection. The double-circle cancellation stamp bore the date and the wording R.R. POSTE ITALIANE- BEIJING or TIENTSIN- CHINA.
The intensification of the xenophobic sentiment of the Chinese due to the presence of the numerous Western territorial concessions and the threat of a destabilizing civil war between the revolutionary movement of the Kuomintang of Sun-Yat-Sen (rooted in Canton and in southern China) and the military leaders of the north in perennial struggle between them favored the decision of the Mussolini government to strengthen the Italian military contingent in China: in December 1924 the expeditionary force of the navy under the command of the corvette captain Alberto Da Zara landed in Shanghai with three companies of about 300 men (San Marco, Libya, San Giorgio).
The postage stamps issued in the Beijing and Tientsin post offices were used until the end of 1922, after which the military used the Italian stamps without overprinting which from 1925 were canceled on postcard and envelope with double circle stamp, the date and wording BATTAG. ITALIAN IN CHINA TIENTSIN. The letters used for correspondence had on the reverse the winged lion of St. Mark and the censorship band at the start with the words VERIFIED FOR CENSORS.
Upon arrival, the envelope was again subjected to verification for which an additional side band with the same wording was applied and a circular stamp was affixed with the indication of the initials of the Censor of competence in Italy. As you can see, the lion imprinted on the envelope has the Gospel book open and the tail high, while in the symbol of war the lion of St. Mark has the book closed, the sword wielded and the tail high.
The cancellation with a circular stamp pertaining to stationary ships in China was also envisaged with the date and wording R. NAVE LIBIA ( Royal Ship Libya) or R.N. SEB. CABOTO (Royal Ship SEB. CABOTO) to give two simplifying examples. We also find cases of postage with Chinese stamps widely used for international shipments and in that case the delivery was almost always through the Trans-Siberian. Often on correspondence we have the oval franchise mark with the state coat of arms and the wording REGIE POSTE BATTAG. IN CHINA TIENTSIN (Royal Italian Postage IN CHINA TIENTSIN).
Even the 65th Infantry Division “Grenadiers of Savoy” (Italian: Granatieri di Savoia) an infantry division of the Italian Army, during their short stay in China, had a special double-circle stamp with the date and wording: Grenadiers battalion of Savoy Far East (BATTAGLIONE GRANATIERI SAVOIA E.O.) and an oval deductible mark. The Italian Battalion in China had at its disposal a regimental postcard.
After 8 September 1943, the Japanese captured the Italian soldiers who still remained in China, making them prisoners. With the Treaty of Paris of February 1947, the Western powers made an explicit act of renouncing their interests in China.
In particular, art. 25 the Treaty of Paris reads: “Italy accepts the cancellation of the lease agreement granted to it by the Chinese Government on the basis of which the Italian Concession in Tianjin was established and also agrees to transmit to the Chinese Government all the assets and archives belonging to the Municipality of that Concession “.
And this treaty is to be considered the last chapter of the Italian colonial adventure in distant China.
Apulian food: an overview
Apulia is a fantastic region, capable of satisfying all needs. This is a land where different peoples influenced the architecture, the language and also, albeit partially, the habits in the kitchen. Apulia Italian: Puglia [ˈpuʎʎa];] is a region of Italy, located in the southern peninsular section of the country, bordering the Adriatic Sea to the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast and the Strait of Otranto and Gulf of Taranto to the south. The region comprises 19,345 square kilometers (7,469 sq mi), and its population is about four million people.
Apulian cuisine is mainly composed of simple ingredients.
Its inhabitants, mainly shepherds and fishermen, were able to use the ingredients at their disposal with genius and taste: oil, wheat and vegetables from the earth and fish from the coastal strip, bathed by the Adriatic and Ionian Seas.
In the first place it should be mentioned the wheat bread that cannot be missing on the Apulian tables.
Among the traditional appetizers we find the “wild chicory with tomato sauce” and the “mussels”, au gratin in the oven as it is the Apulian way of saying for this type of cooking, sprinkled with a batter of eggs, pecorino cheese, parsley and pepper , with a final layer of breadcrumbs.
Obviously, the classic cheese platter cannot be missing on the tables with Caciocavallo cheese, a type of stretched-curd cheese made out of sheep’s or cow’s milk with cured meats usually accompanied by figs.
Fried black sweet olives are another tasty and ancient appetizer, consumed especially in the autumn season.
For those who love fried food, there are the Pettole (balls of leavened dough), mainly prepared during the Christmas holidays and can be prepared in the sweet version and sprinkling them with icing sugar or honey, thus obtaining a real dessert.
One of the best known southern first courses in all of Italy are the famous “orecchiette with turnip tops”. There are a lot of Apulia recipes with orecchiette.
The name of this pasta is due to its shape: a concave disk, smooth on one side and rough on the other, reminiscent of a small ear.
It is one of the most popular typical Apulian dishes, and there is no restaurant or trattoria that does not have them on the menu, cooked in various ways: with tomato sauce, meat sauce or seasoned with various vegetables.
Other first courses of Puglia derive from a long tradition of homemade pasta. Pasta with chickpeas is the typical dish of Salento, region at the southern end of the administrative region of Apulia in Southern Italy, a sub-peninsula of the Italian Peninsula, sometimes described as the “heel” of the Italian “boot”.
Pasta with chickpeas is among the Apulian recipes of ancient tradition and it is now always served in restaurants and trattorias in the area. The name derives from the Arabic tria or ytria, which indicates dry pasta. The recipe calls for part of the pasta to be fried in a pan with plenty of boiling oil, a curious feature of this pasta and chickpeas.
Cavatelli are another type of pasta typical of the Apulian region and should be seasoned with tomato sauce and salted ricotta. In fact, there is no Sunday without cavatelli and bruschule.
Twisted tagliatelle, are a typical dish of the City of Lecce, one of the most important cities of Apulia, to be seasoned with tomato sauces, meat or seasonal vegetables.
The “Apulian soup” is mainly prepared with onions, tomatoes, caciocavallo cheese, herbs and slices of stale bread.
Rice, potatoes and mussels: land and sea come together in this first course which has as ingredients the rice brought to Puglia centuries ago from Spain, potatoes from the Bari area and mussels.
Originally, it was among the typical Apulian first courses of the holidays, it is an appetizing first course, to be eaten hot, freshly baked, but also cold, in summer, like an alternative rice salad.
The typical Apulian cuisine also offers various excellent main courses, some very simple such as bread balls, to be consumed also as an appetizer. It is a peasant dish, a way to recycle stale bread and that makes volume in a pasta dish topped with a simple tomato sauce.
Veal rolls stuffed with stringy caciocavallo cheese to be enjoyed slowly, so as to savor every note of flavor, are another of the many specialties of this region. The traditional recipe strictly requires cooking on the grill, but alternatively you can opt for a simpler cooking in the oven.
Bruschule, that is beef or horse meat roll cooked for at least six hours in tomato sauce, is a dish that is generally prepared for Sunday lunches, reminiscent of grandmothers and large family tables. In many Apulian houses, bruschules, that is horse meat rolls cooked in sauce, are still one of the typical Apulian second-courses of the Sunday table, around which the whole family gathers. The origin of this is uncertain and although it is a second course of meat, it has always been considered a poor dish because it was originally based on horse meat, less valuable and cheaper than other cuts. From the long cooking, a thick and tasty sauce is also obtained with which to season the pasta, preferably orecchiette.
The “stuffed mussels” are a typical main course of Taranto city, the third-largest continental city in southern Italy, and are stuffed with softened breadcrumbs and then cooked in tomato sauce. A real delicacy for lovers of these shellfish!
Round, high, stuffed with whole cherry tomatoes and olives: focaccia is the queen of Apulian street food, widespread throughout the region in a thousand different versions, with the addition of onions, aubergines, vegetables, meats, cheeses and so on.
Then there is the focaccia from Lecce, with potatoes, tomatoes and onions, which can also be eaten as a complete dish, as it is a hearty meal.
You can’t say you’ve been to Puglia if you’ve never tasted fried panzerotto. From time immemorial it has been, together with other fried delights, one of the protagonists of Apulian street cuisine.
This small crescent of pizza dough filled with mozzarella and tomato, crunchy on the outside and soft on the inside, can be bought and enjoyed hot as a snack, or in countless variations, in any rotisserie in the region. Probably it was the result of the ingenuity of some housewife who with the poor ingredients available – leftovers of bread dough, cheese and tomato – created a masterpiece of taste. It dates back to the 17th century, with the spread of the tomato that came from America.
The seafood salad, another important apulian course, is simple and practical since it can be prepared in advance, stored in the fridge and served as an appetizer or second course if necessary.
Another second course from Apulia is the tassel hyacinths (lampascioni) omelette. Tassel hyacinths are similar to a small onion and are used a lot in typical cuisine, especially for the creation of tasty side dishes.
Tassel hyacinths are consumed boiled, in salads or fried; there are also all the seasonal vegetables, which are cooked in a myriad of recipes.
Such tasty second courses cannot fail to be accompanied by equally good and inviting side dishes. Obviously, Apulia does not disappoint in this case either.
Peppers are used in different preparations, even with a sweet and sour taste. They can be cooked with an addition of white wine and sugar, and then sautéed in a pan with breadcrumbs and garlic, thus becoming pleasantly crunchy and tasty.
Broad beans and wild chicory is a simple and rustic side dish, but very tasty. The beans are reduced to a cream and their
sweet and delicate flavor softens the strong one of the spontaneous herb.
Lat but not least, Apulian desserts are very simple, prepared manually and according to tradition. The “Cartellate” with honey and almonds are sweets typical of the province of Foggia, a pasta made of flour, oil and white wine, spread very thinly, so much so that it resembles a sheet of waxed paper and it is precisely from this characteristic that it takes its name.
The dough is wrapped around itself, as if to form a rose, and then fried.
The pasticciotto, typical Lecce sweet with custard cream and sour cherries. According to the legend, this dessert was invented in the shop of a pastry chef who was experiencing a time of economic crisis and had to invent something new at all costs to make ends meet. The ingredients he had available weren’t even enough for him to create an entire cake! But at a certain point, his ingenuity advised him to use small molds, creating this typical sweet . The first to have been lucky enough to taste this dessert was enthusiastic and commissioned others to take home, thus creating the fortune of the pastry chef.
The bocconotti (pastry tartlets stuffed, sprinkled with powdered sugar) also consist of shortcrust pastry, with a filling that can be chocolate, cream or jam.
Apulia with its 105 thousand hectares of planted area, currently plays a small role in the vast panorama of Italian viticulture: the attention of producers towards production, which in the past was addressed to quantity, it is gradually moving towards higher quality. Viticulture in Puglia dates back to the period before the Phoenicians, before 2000 BC.
Although Apulia also produces rosés and whites, it is the red wines that have established themselves in terms of quality and popularity.
Of course, Apulian gastronomy does not end here.
君士坦丁一世（拉丁语：Flavius Valerius Constantinus，272年2月27日-337年5月22日）也被称为君士坦丁大帝，自公元306年至337年在位的罗马皇帝，在中国这时是东晋王朝的开端。他出生在塞尔维亚尼什，他从来不喜欢罗马。他是弗拉维乌斯·君士坦提乌斯的儿子，弗拉维乌斯·君士坦提乌斯是一位出生在巴尔干半岛中部的罗马军官，成为了四帝共治制——“四人领导”的四位皇帝之一。四帝共治制系统由罗马帝国皇帝戴克里先在293年，相当于中国的西晋时期建立的一套制度，通过将罗马帝国在2个皇帝间进行划分，由2个皇帝及其下级和2个皇帝的指定继任者治理古罗马帝国。
Constantine I the “First Christian Emperor” who did not love Rome
At the time of Jin dynasty that comprises two distinct phases—the Xi (Western) Jin, ruling China from AD 265 to 316/317, and the Dong (Eastern) Jin, which ruled China from AD 317 to 420, in Rome there was the Constantinian age, which has always been considered a sort of historical turning point. In fact, the Costantinian age has sometimes been considered as a terminal element in the study of ‘Roman’ art and culture and at other times as an initial element in that relating to the time immediately following, which has been indicated as ‘early Christian’, or ‘Byzantine’, or ‘late antique’, depending on the contexts and individual preferences of scholars.
To further complicate matters, there’s the religious factor. Taking into account the date of the Milan Edict, 313 A.D. , end of Xi Jin dynasty, which corresponds to the ‘official’ entry of Christianity into the world of politics, but also of art and culture , it’s possible to break the reign of Constantine into two parts. Even if the first part is certainly much shorter than the second and places the aforementioned historical turning point within the Constantinian age.
Constantine I (Latin: Flavius Valerius Constantinus 27 February c. 272 – 22 May 337), also known as Constantine the Great, was Roman emperor from 306 to 337 A.D., in China is the beginning of the Dong Jin dynasty. He was born in Niš, Serbia and he never liked Rome. He was the son of Flavius Constantius, a Roman army officer born in in the Central Balkans, who became one of the four emperors of the Tetrarchy, “leadership of four people”, the system instituted by Roman Emperor Diocletian in 293, at the time of Xi Jin dynasty, to govern the ancient Roman Empire by dividing it between two senior emperors and their juniors and designated successors.
The mother of Constantine I, Helena, was Greek. Constantine served with distinction campaigning in the eastern provinces against barbarians and the Persians, before being recalled west in 305 to fight under his father in Britain. After his father’s death in 306, Constantine was acclaimed as emperor by the army at York, in England.
The Milvian Bridge is a bridge over the Tiber in northern Rome, Italy. It was an economically and strategically important bridge in the era of the Roman Empire and was the site of the famous Battle of the Milvian Bridge in 312, between the Roman Emperors Constantine I and Maxentius, which led to the imperial rule of Constantine.
Constantine was directed in a dream to cause the heavenly sign to be delineated on the shields of his soldiers, and so to proceed to battle. He did as he had been commanded, and he marked on their shields the letter Χ, with a perpendicular line drawn through it and turned round thus at the top, being the cipher of Christ. Having this sign on the shields his troops stood to arms and won.
He emerged victorious in the civil wars against emperors Maxentius and Licinius to become sole ruler of the Roman Empire by 324. Constantine was the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity. He played an influential role in the proclamation of the Edict of Milan in 313, which declared tolerance for Christianity in the Roman Empire. He has historically been referred to as the “First Christian Emperor” and he did favour the Christian Church. While some modern scholars debate his beliefs and even his comprehension of Christianity, he is venerated as a saint in Eastern Christianity.
To see the places where the emperor’s building activity took place the most one has to move away from the Roman Forum. Only in this way, it is possible to find much more traces of a specific building and urban planning activity made by Constantine, which is documented in detail because it is connected with the ‘official’ Christian cult.
The first example that comes to mind in this sense, also because it is linked to the victory of 312 A.D. against emperor Maxentius and the Edict of Milan in 313 A.D. is the construction, on the area of the destroyed barracks of the mounted troops devoted to Maxentius, of the enormous Christian Lateran Basilica , which was completed very early and was equipped, not much later, with the octagonal baptistery which still retains much of the original structure.
The swastika symbol has been used by many cultures and civilizations for over thousands of years. And it was later abundantly used in Greek and Roman mosaics. The word ‘swastika’ is a Sanskrit word (‘svasktika’) meaning ‘It is’, ‘Well Being’, ‘Good Existence, and ‘Good Luck’. However, it is also known by different names in different countries – like ‘Wàn’ in China, ‘Manji’ in Japan.
The important Claudian aqueduct one of nine aqueducts of the imperial city of Rome was incorporated into the walls. Completed by the Emperor Claudius, 41-54 AD, this aqueduct was remarkable for the quantity of water it conveyed to the city and was by far the grandest in point of architectural effect, inasmuch as it presented, for about 6 miles before it reached the city, a continuous range of exceedingly lofty structure, the arches being in some places 33 meters hight. The nine aqueducts of imperial Rome brought in water from pristine mountain lakes and springs as far as 50-60 miles.
It’s a weird history that Rome became the center of world Christianity because of Constantine I the “First Christian Emperor” who did not love Rome.
博马佐是一座意大利小村庄，位于意大利中部罗马地区拉齐奥的西米诺山脚下，它具有其独特的神韵：奇迹别墅，又称圣林或怪兽公园。各种奇形怪状的雕塑散落在一片树木繁茂的土地上：这就是怪兽公园，由建筑师Pirro Ligorio（米开朗基罗死后正是由这个建筑师继续完成梵蒂冈圣彼得大教堂的建造）设计，1552年Pier Francesco Orsini王子（昵称：Vicino）对此觊觎已久，彼时正值中国明朝时期。
The Sacred Wood in Bomarzo, Italy
Bomarzo is an italian village in Lazio, the region of Rome, in central Italy, at the foot of Mount Cimino, and it owns a unique stroke of genius: the Villa of Marvels, also called the Sacred Wood or Park of Monsters. Fantastic and grotesque sculptures are scattered across a wooded terrain: this is the Park of Monsters which Prince Pier Francesco Orsini, nicknamed Vicino, coveted in 1552, at the time of the chinese Ming dynasty, and which was designed by the architect Pirro Ligorio (who completed St. Peter’s Basilica in Vatican after Michelangelo’s death).
Pirro Ligorio was born in Naples in 1510 and died in Ferrara, northern Italy, in 1583 and he was concerned with the prevailing antiquarian culture in Rome where he moved in 1534.
In Bomarzo the works began in 1560 and ended in 1585. The park is located near the homonymous locality of Bomarzo in the province of Viterbo, 120 kms. North of Rome. The surreal landscape looks like a sort of natural amphitheater, dotted with an assortment of threatening blocks of peperino marble, a brown or grey volcanic tuff, perhaps generated by an earthquake.
There are various parks in Italy which have been realized through naturalistic engineering during the second half of the sixteenth century. Refined ltalian style gardens follow geometric and perspective rationality with embellishments such as wide terraces, fountains with water games and mannerist sculptures.
On the contrary the learned Prince of Bomarzo dedicated himself to creating an eccentric “wood” having the blocks of peperino emerging from the ground sculpted into enigmatic figures of monsters, dragons, mythological subjects and exotic animals, a crooked house, a funerary temple, fountains, seats and obelisks with carved mottoes and inscriptions.
In a naturalistic context of significant impact, the Sacred Wood is an unusual solution which does not follow sixteenth century usage; the different elements have no perspective relationship between each other and have no coherence or common proportions.
Everything is invented with iconological criteria which escape even the most impassioned scholars, a labyrinth of symbols which envelopes anyone who enters.
They inspired many artists at the time, but after the death of Vicino Orsini nobody took charge of the place and it only began to be appreciated by european intellectuals and artists after centuries of neglect.
These rocks were skilfully carved on the spot, they took the form of terrible creatures, between steep paths and wild vegetation.
The park looks like an adventurous sequence of apparitions, now frightening, now pleasant, which let themselves be discovered one after the other in the green of the woods. All this happens to instill amazement, without a logical order and without a pre-established path.
Everything is transformed into a labyrinth of symbols and envelops anyone who enters it, physically and intellectually, and offers completely irregular solutions.
The different figures are mutually independent from any perspective relationship and are not united by any coherence of proportions. The creator of the unique garden has managed to break all classical composure to build a disconcerting relationship with nature with its gigantic elements.
Nightmares and lightheartedness can be found in this magical forest as they were found in the chivalric literature of the time, a sort of chinese Wuxia stories which have their roots in some early youxia tales from 300–200 BCE. A continuous response of poetic passages and iconographic inventions makes the park a meeting area between art and literature.
In Western chivalric poems the word “sacred” meant magical and bewitched, the bewitched forest subjects the knight to a series of terrible challenges that constitute the different aspects of the difficulties that the hero must overcome.
Prince Orsini, the cultured lord of Bomarzo, strongly wanted to create his garden which became one of the most important of the sixteenth century, but also the one that most of all remained shrouded in mystery.
这种艺术形式有助于加强人们对二战后的意大利，对苏联和共产主义形象的认识，这场艺术运动重在重构1934年威尼斯双年展苏联展馆展示的艺术家作品以及1956至1970年间尼克拉基·安德列夫(Nikolaj Andreev)、亚历山大·德吉内卡(Aleksandr Dejneka)、谢尔盖·格拉西莫夫(Sergej Gerasimov)、维拉·穆希娜(Vera Muchina)、皮特尔·可卡洛夫斯基(Pëtr Končalovskij)、格力格尔维克·尼斯基(Grigor’evič Nisskij)以及维克托·派克维(Viktor Popkov)等作家的作品。谈及二战后意大利流传的苏联神话，就意味着我们不得不从语言和词义的角度揭开复杂世界的面纱，虽然从展览和出版物中得不到解决，但若没有谬误神话或对立观点，最终依然可从中窥见一斑。重点是意大利对苏联社会主义现实主义的接受这一事实，并将其置于文化交流背景中。社会主义现实主义以对解放无产阶级等共产主义价值的描述为特征。由于社会主义现实主义的作用便是展示理想的苏联社会，因此当时乐观主义非常流行。它不仅应该在现代辉煌鼎盛，而且在未来也应该以一种和谐的方式来描绘。因为现代和未来总是被理想化，而社会主义现实主义也总有一种强制乐观主义的感觉。弗拉基米尔·列宁在1917-1924年担任俄罗斯政府首脑期间为这一新的艺术浪潮奠定了基础，他倡导艺术服务于人民，而且同时能够团结大众，因此人民应该热爱和理解艺术。
那意大利艺术家在苏联之行中又看到了什么呢？ 他们遇见了谁、谈论了什么、带来了什么、又发现了什么？他们的艺术作品极有可能帮助我们了解他们的所见所闻。这一反思将我们带回了意大利共产党与天主教民主党之间的政治对立，以及二战后美国和苏联分别对意大利施加影响并针锋相对的年代。那些年间对半数的意大利人来说，苏联和共产主义如同神话一般，堪比社会主义天堂，而对另一半意大利人而言却是魔鬼一般的存在。那些年是伟大的意大利知识分子（比如卡罗·乐维(Carlo Levi)、伊塔洛·卡尔维罗(Italo Calvino)和阿尔伯托·莫拉维亚(Alberto Moravia) 等等）纷纷前往莫斯科进行世俗朝圣的时代。这也是人们在艾尔米塔什排起长龙欣赏雷纳托·古图索（Renato Guttuso）画作的年代。
因此如今重新思考二战后意大利共产主义的神话形象以及现实主义肖像学在共产主义的扩散与传播中的作用仍是十分有趣的。从1948年开始的近30年里，苏萨拉奖（Suzzara Prize）一直在倡导对现实主义语言和作品主题进行反思。参与并获奖的艺术家（从古图索(Guttuso)到兹盖纳(Zigaina)，从戈奥尼(Gorni)到博尔龚左尼(Borgonzoni)，从穆基(Mucchi)到皮兹纳托(Pizzinato)，从法布里(Fabbri)到苏吉(Sughi)等等）介绍了意大利共产党（PCI）的文化政策中形象艺术在主题中的作用。苏萨拉奖在许多方面都反映了一种奇怪的、乌托邦式的理念，这一理念认为艺术不应该是精英主义，而应该是回应各种社会条件和文化水平的人类对美、品质和诗歌的需求。从苏萨拉系列作品集中我们可以了解到20世纪40年代到50年代期间意大利面临的现实主义问题：古斯塔夫·库尔贝（Gustave Courbet）提出的将现实主义视为民主艺术的旧观念与一个世纪之前的“可理解的人类艺术”理念是相关联的。我们应牢记那个年代出现在系列作品集中的以下作者： 阿曼多·皮兹纳托（Armando Pizzinato）、雷纳托·古图索（Renato Guttuso）、朱塞佩·兹盖纳（Giuseppe Zigaina）、雷纳托·比诺力（Renato Birolli）、阿里吉·沙梭（Aligi Sassu）、多梅尼科·坎塔托里（Domenico Cantatore）、朱利奥·图尔卡托（Giulio Turcato）、弗朗哥·弗兰切塞·贝比·罗马诺尼（Franco Francese Bepi Romagnoni）以及蒂蒂纳·梅塞里（Titina Maselli）等等。即使是在经济繁荣的二十世纪六十年代，作品主题以及对民事责任问题的浓厚兴趣仍然是苏萨拉奖的显著特点，尽管其表现形式受到了意大利现实主义传统新趋势的制约。皮兹纳托·阿曼多的作品《大铁犁》具有立体派风格，这一风格常常用几何形状来描述事物。画家采用沉闷的泥土色并加以一些或红或蓝的暗影。农业机械原本作为工人阶级斗争的工具，并以五角星标记以示强调，这也是工人自主运动的标志图案，作为艺术研究对象后，被赋予了强烈的象征意义。现代语言的使用超越了纯粹的描述，在主题选择和艺术家提议的背后是公开的政治承诺；他的作品是一场斗争运动，进而使这幅画成为新艺术前沿组织倡导的战后时期新现实主义的宣言。在朱利奥·图尔卡托的作品《矿工》中，艺术家以社会现实为立足点，摒弃了描述性现实主义的方式，转而采用了抽象主义的新形态。从这一点来说，这幅画应该属于“形式主义”运动的一部分。戈奥尼·朱塞佩的《除草工》由于使用了彩色的赤陶土（暗红色），而且整个身体上具有更明显的划痕纹，因此风格极富表现力。
An art movement of post-World War II Italy inspired by communism
Socialist realism is a style of idealized realistic art that was developed in the Soviet Union and was the official style in that country between 1932 and 1988, as well as in other socialist countries after World War II. The Italian variant of communism was in the years 1943-1969 one of the happiest and most productive chapters of all communist experiences, despite its inglorious and even banal end in 1991. An art movement of post-World War II Italian art was inspired by the art of socialist realism. It is interesting to reflect on the elective affinities and cultural and linguistic divergences of this phenomenon.
This type of art served to raise awareness of the image of the USSR and communism in Italy after World War II, with a particular focus on the reconstruction of the works and artists proposed in the Soviet Pavilions at the Venetian Biennials in 1934 and from 1956 to the 1970s with works by Nikolaj Andreev, Aleksandr Dejneka, Sergej Gerasimov, Vera Muchina, Pëtr Končalovskij, Grigor’evič Nisskij, Viktor Popkov.
Talking about the myth of the USSR in Italy after World War II means raising the lid on a complex world in terms of languages and meanings, impossible to resolve in an exhibition and in a publication, but at which, finally and without false myths or negations, it’s possible to look. Attention must be focused on the reception of Soviet socialist realism in Italy, framing it in a context of exchanges and cultural relations.
Socialist realism is characterized by the depiction of communist values, such as the emancipation of the proletariat. There was a prevailing sense of optimism, as socialist realism’s function was to show the ideal Soviet society. Not only was the present gloried, but the future was also supposed to be depicted in an agreeable fashion. Because the present and the future were constantly idealized, socialist realism had a sense of forced optimism. Vladimir Lenin, head of the Russian government 1917–1924, laid the foundation for this new wave of art, suggesting that art is for the people and the people should love and understand it, while uniting the masses.
In this overall picture, an aspect that emerged in all its complexity is that of the trip made by intellectuals to the USSR and their travel reports, which during the 1950s built a mythical and at the same time strongly stereotyped image of places, social contexts, linguistic and cultural issues.
What had the Italian artists seen on their travels to the Soviet Union? Who had they met, what had they talked about, what had they brought with them, what had they found? It’s possible to understand their experience through their works of art.
This reflection takes us back to the years of the frontal political opposition between Communists and Christian Democrats in Italy, between USA and USSR influence post-World War II Italy. In those years, for half of the Italians the USSR and communism were the myth, the paradise of social justice and for the other half they were the devil.
These were the years in which great Italian intellectuals (Carlo Levi, Italo Calvino, Alberto Moravia among many) made their secular pilgrimage to Moscow. The years in which long queues formed at the Hermitage to admire the paintings by Renato Guttuso.
It is therefore interesting today to reflect on the mythical image of communism in post-World War II Italy and on the role assumed by realist iconography in its diffusion and transmission.
From 1948 for almost thirty years, there was the initiative of the Suzzara Prize, which wanted to reflect on the realist language and on the theme of work. The participating and awarded artists (from Guttuso to Zigaina, from Gorni to Borgonzoni, from Mucchi to Pizzinato, from Fabbri to Sughi, just to name a few) introduce the theme of the role of figurative art within the cultural policy of the PCI (Italian Communist Party).
The Suzzara Prize reflected an idea in many ways surprising and utopian, according to which art should not be elitist but respond to a need for beauty, quality and poetry common to all men, of any social condition and cultural level.
From Suzzara’s collection it is possible to grasp the terms of the realist question in Italy between the 1940s and 1950s: the old concept of realism as democratic art, developed by Gustave Courbet, was connected to the idea of “an understandable and human art” a century earlier. Among the authors of those years present in the collection it’s crucial to remember: Armando Pizzinato, Renato Guttuso, Giuseppe Zigaina, Renato Birolli, Aligi Sassu, Domenico Cantatore, Giulio Turcato, Franco Francese Bepi Romagnoni, Titina Maselli etc.
Even in the sixties of the twentieth century, the years of the economic boom, the theme of work and the interest in issues of civil commitment continued to characterize the editions of the Suzzara Prize, albeit according to expressive forms variously conditioned by the new trends in Italian realist tradition.
The great plow by Pizzinato Armando has a cubist style, which tends to describe the shapes geometrically. The painter utilized dull and earthy colors, with some hints of red and blue. The agricultural machine, chosen as the object of artistic investigation, assumes an intense symbolic value as a tool of struggle for workers, underlined by the representation of the five-pointed star: symbol of the Autonomia Operaia movement. The use of a modern language, which goes beyond pure descriptiveness, the declared political commitment, which lies behind the choice of this subject and the artist’s will to propose, through his work, an action of struggle, make of this painting a manifesto of the “new realism “, proposed, in the immediate post-war period, by the New Front of the Arts.
With the work Mine by Turcato Giulio, the artist takes a position on social reality, rejecting, however, the ways of descriptive realism and reaching a new figuration using abstractionism instead. In this sense, the painting is part of the ” formalist ” movement.
The weeder by Gorni Giuseppe has an expressive style due to the use of colored terracotta (dark red), and to the even more evident signs of scratches along the whole figure.
The Italian communist art found a language with which to confront the violence of its time, from fascism and the Nazi occupation to the era of Christian Democracy and the Cold War. Italian artists practiced a way of describing the world that paralleled the symbolic strategy of the Italian Communist Party informed by the political theories of Antonio Gramsci.
但是我们对现代罗马人的饮食又了解多少呢？罗马的饮食文化历经几个世纪的社会、文化和政治变迁。古罗马曾是非常重要的美食中心。在中国汉代到南北朝这段时间里，罗马帝国（公元前27年-公元476年）的无限扩张令罗马人接触到了许多新的外来饮食习惯和烹饪技巧。一开始社会阶级之间的差异并不大，但却随着帝国的扩张而日渐增大。后来，在意大利文艺复兴时期（即中国的明朝时期），罗马成为了著名的高端饮食中心，原因主要在于当时最顶级的厨师均为教皇御用。其中一个著名的例子便是巴托洛梅奥·斯卡皮（Bartolomeo Scappi），他是梵蒂冈庇乌斯四世（Pius IV）（1499-1565）的御用厨师，最后因在1570年出版《烹饪艺术集》（Opera dell’arte del cucinare）而一举成名。 他在书中记载了大约1000份文艺复兴时期的食谱，对各种烹饪技巧和工具进行了详细描述，并且在书中记录了全球第一张已知的餐叉图片。后来西班牙人引进了美国作物尤其是西红柿，进而对罗马和所有意大利菜系进行了改良。
按照罗马传统，这些都代表了经典的周四菜肴，也可以放在一周的中间食用来平衡第二天的清淡饮食……这种神秘的习俗沿袭至今，现在仍被众多怀旧的罗马人民传承着。罗马式烤羊排（“手指烧烤风格”烤羊排）是拉齐奥的传统食谱，经过腌制的羊排烤熟后趁热上桌，可以用手拿着吃，因此这道菜也被称作“手指烧烤食物”。第二道菜叫做罗马小牛肉卷——这是一款罗马风格的小牛肉配火腿（熏火腿）和鼠尾草。煎小牛肉是“salta in bocca”的缩写，字面上是“舌尖上的跳动”之意。罗马式烧牛尾——也叫焖牛尾，这道菜起源于古代社会将动物第五部位作为工资的一部分付给屠宰场的工人。这道菜采用番茄酱、芹菜、丁香和苦巧克力为原料。吃牛尾时会把手弄脏，因为如果不体验一下不用餐叉就能手撕牛尾、啃牛尾骨的快感那就太遗憾了。意大利乳清干酪（字面上是“再次煮食”、“精制”的意思）是一种采用产自绵羊、奶牛、山羊或者意大利水牛的乳清制成的奶酪。和其他乳清奶酪一样，它是通过凝固酪蛋白制成奶酪后残留的蛋白质成分制作而成，尤其是白蛋白和球蛋白。犹太风格的洋蓟是罗马犹太饮食中最著名的菜肴之一。这道菜基本上是通过油炸洋蓟而成，这道菜肴起源于罗马的犹太社区，而菜名中的giudio即是罗马方言对犹太人的称呼。这也是罗马贫民窟的特色菜，那里的犹太餐馆春季都有这道菜供应。炸洋蓟（犹太风格洋蓟菜）是通过将整个洋蓟用红辣椒填满油炸而成。在罗马传统中，五一节完全与新鲜的蚕豆和羊奶干酪联系在一起，这是一道既美味又营养丰富的菜肴。以甜点结束用餐是一个非常令人满足的饮食习惯。在罗马，你可以品尝到意大利鲜奶蛋糕——这是一种采用乳清干酪并利用柠檬（或橘子）和玛萨拉葡萄酒调味的芝士蛋糕。
Rome is famous all over the world for her superb monuments, for her 2,000-year-old archaeological remains and columns and her baroque churches. Roman cuisine comes from the Italian city of Rome.
It features fresh, seasonal and simply-prepared ingredients from Roman Campagna, a low-lying area surrounding Rome in the Lazio region of central Italy, with an area of approximately 2,100 square kilometres (810 sq mi). During the Ancient Roman period, it was an important agricultural and residential area, but it was abandoned during the European Middle Ages ( in China more or less from Tang dynasty to Northern Yuan dynasty ) due to malaria and insufficient water supplies for farming needs. The pastoral beauty of the Campagna inspired the painters who flocked into Rome in the 18th and 19th centuries. During that time, the Campagna became the most painted landscape in Europe. An excursion into the Roman countryside was an essential part of the Grand Tour, the 17th- and 18th-century custom of a traditional trip through Europe undertaken by upper-class young European men.
Food is a local art as well as an international one, and experts of all kinds do one thing above all to find inspiration and that is traveling.
But what is known today about the cuisine of modern Romans? Rome’s food has changed through centuries and periods of social, cultural, and political vicissitudes. Rome became a major gastronomical center during the ancient age.
In the period of time that goes in China from Han till the Northern and Southern dynasties, the Roman Empire’s (27 B.C.- 476 A.D.) enormous expansion exposed Romans to many new, provincial culinary habits and cooking techniques. In the beginning, the differences between social classes were not very great, but disparities developed with the empire’s growth.
Later, during the Italian Renaissance (Ming dynasty in China), Rome became well known as a center of high-cuisine, since some of the best chefs of the time worked for the Popes. An example of this could be Bartolomeo Scappi, who was a chef working for Pius IV (1499- 1565) in the Vatican kitchen, reaching fame with his cookbook Work of the art of cooking (Opera dell’arte del cucinare), published in 1570. Here he lists approximately 1000 recipes of Renaissance cuisine and describes cooking techniques and tools, giving the first known picture of a fork. Roman and all Italian cuisine were modified by the introduction of American crops by the Spanish, especially the tomato.
Rome and Lazio is always an unforgettable experience. Here every course is mouth-watering, and is enriched with new nuances when accompanied by sincere local wines.
The following are just some of the most famous dishes in Rome and Lazio, the others must be discovered by traveling through the small villages.
As a Roman appetizer it is important to mention, without a doubt, Bruschetta – a popular antipasto or appetizer in central Italy. It comes from the word ‘bread which is lightly burnt’, typically rubbed with garlic and topped with oil and tomatoes.
Fiori di zucca – zucchini flowers filled with mozzarella cheese and anchovies, battered and deep fried.
Supplì – fried rice croquettes which are stuffed with beef ragout and mozzarella.
After these savory starters it’s time to eat a main course. Among the main courses Bucatini alla carbonara – pasta dish (Bucatini are a thick spaghetti-like pasta with a hole running through the center) with crispy bacon, eggs and grated Pecorino Romano cheese must be remembered.
A very important precaution to follow for the success of the bucatini alla carbonara recipe concerns the addition of the eggs: remember that you must never add them over the fire, but always at the end and with the fire out. In fact, the goal should not be to cook them, but only to make them thicken. This means that they must not even remain very liquid: if you notice that they tend to remain too liquid, put everything back into the cooking pot of the pasta which, being still hot, will allow the egg to thicken well.
Cacio e pepe – pasta dish is another typical main couse in rome. It is a pasta with a sauce made with black pepper and grated Pecorino Romano.
Cacio e pepe – pasta dish simplicity is only apparent, and indeed, precisely because the main ingredients, besides the pasta, are only two, the difficulty lies precisely in balancing them perfectly, and in creating a savory and creamy sauce at the right point. The pitfalls, in fact, are just around the corner: cooking, lump formation, excess of salt.
Another apparently very simple dish is pasta alla gricia. Bring plenty of water to a boil. Cut the bacon into strips and brown it without oil in a non-stick pan, adding a ladle of boiling water. It will release all the precious fat which will then flavor the pasta. Meanwhile, boil the pasta in salted water and then drain it al dente directly into the bacon. Stir well by tossing it in a pan for a few minutes, adding a few ladles of cooking water. At this point turn off the heat, add the pepper and grated pecorino cheese, then sauté further for a couple of minutes more. You just have to serve pasta alla gricia!
Bucatini are a thick spaghetti-like pasta with a hole running through the center. They are very utilized for Bucatini Amatriciana style. It is a traditional Italian pasta sauce based on cured pork cheek, pecorino romano cheese, tomato, and, in some variations, onion. Originating from the town of Amatrice (in the mountainous Province of Rieti of Lazio region), it is one of the best known pasta sauces in present-day Roman and Italian cuisine. The Italian government has named it a traditional agro-alimentary product of Lazio. To prepare it one has to remove the rind from the bacon, cut it into slices, then into strips. Fry the bacon in a saucepan with very little oil or simply cook it in a drop of water, as required in the most classic recipe. After a few minutes, add the chopped chilli, choosing the quantity according to your personal taste. Add the skinned and sliced tomatoes, then season with salt.
Rigatoni con la pajata – is a pasta dish with a sauce made with ringed intestines of a milk-fed veal and pecorino cheese. Rigatoni with pajata were born as a dish appreciated by the workers of the ancient Slaughterhouse of Rome who, at the end of the day, received the so-called “fifth quarter” of the animal together with a poor pay, or the scraps of slaughtered meats (entrails, legs and tongue) . With their bags of meat, the workers went to the nearby taverns in the area and asked that the animal waste be used to prepare hearty dishes to feed the families. Thus was born the pajata, traditional Roman dish today appreciated by gourmets and tourists.
Roman-style gnocchi are a typical dish of Lazio peasant cuisine, prepared with a traditional poor ingredient: semolina. Despite the name of this dish, gnocchi alla romana have nothing to do with the classic potato gnocchi.
As the Roman tradition dictates, these represent the classic Thursday dish, probably placed in the middle of the week to compensate for the lightness of the next day’s meal … an arcane custom that is still carried on today by the most nostalgic Roman citizens.
Abbacchio a scottadito ( grilled lamb chops “finger burn style” – is a recipe of Lazio origin, it is marinated and grilled lamb chops that are served very hot and eaten with your hands, for this reason they are called “scottadito” (finger burn style).
Another second course is Saltimbocca alla Romana – Roman-style veal with ham (prosciutto) and sage. Saltimbocca is a contraction of “salta in bocca”, which literally means ‘jump in the mouth’.
Coda alla vaccinara – Oxtail stew, is a course originating from the “fifth quarter” the part of the animal given as part of the pay to the workers of the ancient Slaughterhouse. It is cooked with tomato sauce, celery, clove and bitter chocolate. To eat the tail, you have to get your hands dirty, because it is a real shame not to experience the thrill of stripping it without a fork, simply biting into the bones that make it up.
Ricotta (literally meaning “recooked”, “refined”) is a whey cheese made from sheep, cow, goat, or Italian water buffalo milk whey left over from the production of other cheeses. Like other whey cheeses, it is made by coagulating the proteins that remain after the casein has been used to make cheese, notably albumin and globulin.
Jewish-style artichokes is among the best-known dishes of Roman Jewish cuisine. The recipe is essentially a deep-fried artichoke, and originated in the Jewish community of Rome, giudìo being the Roman dialect term for Jew. It is a speciality of the Roman Ghetto, where it is served by Jewish restaurants in the springtime.
Carciofi alla giudia (Jewish-style artichokes) Whole artichokes filled with chili peppers and deep-fried.
In the Roman tradition, May Day is totally associated with fresh broad beans and pecorino, a tasty, nutritious, and powerful combination.
Ending the meal with a dessert is a very greedy and also gratifying habit. In Rome you can have a Crostata di ricotta – Cheesecake, made with ricotta, and flavored with lemons (or oranges) and Marsala wine.
Maritozzo is a typical dessert of Rome and Lazio, consisting of a small loaf kneaded with flour, eggs, honey, butter and salt which, cut in two lengthwise, is usually filled with abundant whipped cream, traditionally also enriched with pine nuts, grapes and zest candied orange.
Of course everything that has been eaten must be washed down with excellent Lazio wine. In this case the choice is very wide and the advice of the chef at lunch time can be very useful.
享用完第一道菜和第二道菜后，就是甜点时间了。由于甜点品种十分丰富，因此要从琳琅满目的著名甜点中找到自己中意的一款非常不易。这个著名的西西里意大利乳清干酪蛋糕口感极佳，搭配了海绵蛋糕、乳清干酪奶油和马托拉纳水果。在餐桌上，它总是给人带来赏心悦目的感觉。这款蛋糕全年适用，但是在特殊重要场合尤其受到青睐。这款甜点据说起源于阿拉伯，其历史可以追溯到9世纪到11世纪之间。实际上，正是阿拉伯人将甘蔗、柠檬、苦橙、柑橘和杏仁引进了西西里岛。这款糕点女皇的诞生正是得益于这些神奇的配料和乳清干酪的完美结合。香草奶油脆皮卷代表了西西里岛的饮食精髓，将这道精髓卷在一份甜点里，一口又一口……香味口感绝对让人回味无穷。西西里香草奶油脆皮卷是这个美丽岛屿的骄傲，也是世界上最受喜爱的甜点之一。西西里香草奶油脆皮卷可以在餐馆里以原汁原味的方式享用，也可以制成微缩版。在糕点店的陈列橱窗里，西西里香草奶油脆皮卷经典的泡泡和闪闪发光的乳清奶油令无数食客为之着迷。它们不仅令西西里小城街道上的行人驻足，也是各种活动宴会的宠儿。它们常常作为街头小吃出售，可以随时随地享用。与所有的地方食谱一样，西西里香草奶油脆皮卷也会因为地域和家族秘方的不同而制成各种不同版本。格兰尼塔冰糕是一款冰甜点，是典型的西西里早餐食谱。这是一款由半冷冻液体食材与水、糖和果汁或其他配料（除了水果之外，杏仁、开心果和咖啡也是更为常见的食材）混合而成。油炸鸢尾是一款塞满馅料的油炸甜点，也是西西里岛尤其是巴勒莫地区的经典糕点。这款甜点的名字是为了纪念当地著名的糕点厨师Antonio Lo Verso，正是这位厨师在玛斯卡格尼的歌剧《鸢尾花》首映时构思出了这款著名的甜点。这款甜点是由微甜的面团发酵后油炸而成，它其实就是一款塞满不同口味馅料的甜甜圈。这道甜点最经典的一款是采用乳清干酪填充的馅料，然后加入巧克力薄片，但是还有很多其他版本，里面填充了各种不同类型的奶油。 油炸鸢尾是巴勒莫美食中最受欢迎的街头小吃之一，路人可以随时随地趁热享用。这道甜点表面酥脆，它与内部面团的松软和乳清奶油的精致形成鲜明的对比。作为本地一种美味的特产之一，西西里刺梨也不容错过。最后要推荐的也是西西里最具有盛名的葡萄酒之一，即著名的黑珍珠葡萄酒。
Short trip to a land where food is a cult: Sicily
Sicily, situated in the heart of the Mediterranean, is a land of fairytale beauty. Since ancient times this land between Europe and Africa has stimulated the appetites of many conquering peoples. Its coasts and its fields have been trodden by people from various cultures. And each of these people has left its mark in language, art, way of life but above all in food. When in 2019 the President of the People’s Republic of China made an official visit to Italy, in addition to Rome he visited Palermo, the capital of Sicily.
I will try to briefly describe some dishes of the Sicilian gastronomic tradition, without absolutely wanting to be exhaustive, because the food and wine goodness of this land kissed by the sea and the sun are almost infinite …
Starting a gastronomic journey in this land is something difficult and unrepeatable. And certainly the Sicilian gastronomic richness cannot be reduced to a few lines. However, you can start by tasting a dish of North African origin also elaborated in Sicily and cooked based on fish.
Couscous is a North African dish of small (about 3 millimetres (0.12 in) in diameter) steamed balls of crushed durum wheat semolina that is traditionally served with a stew spooned on top. And it is typical of Sicily. Couscous is prepared with various toppings, but in Sicily it is a very tasty fish dish and is considered a popular and poor dish because it was born in the homes of fishermen families who, to prepare it, had fish and a few other simple foods available: durum wheat semolina, garlic, bay leaf, onion and olive oil.
The richness of the island’s vegetables brings us to this other delight for the palate: Caponata, which is a dish which may have been introduced to Sicily during the Arab conquests of the 9th century. The etymology of the name is not entirely known. Some suggest it derives from the Catalan language, others that it comes from the caupone, the sailors’ taverns.
It is a set of vegetables (mostly aubergines), seasoned with tomato sauce, celery, onion, olives and capers, in a sweet and sour sauce.
The Sicilian caponata recipe has almost 30 variations, all authentic and more or less known, depending on the latitude. There seem to be two commonly accepted constants, eggplant and tomato, generally combined with pine nuts (or almonds) and fresh basil. It is a summer appetizer and a typical Sicilian side dish.
Rice arancini (or arancine), the pride of Sicilian cuisine, are small timbales suitable to be consumed both as a snack and as an appetizer, first course or even a single dish. In Sicily they are found everywhere and at all times, always hot and fragrant in the many frying shops: from city to city they often change shape and size, taking on oval, pear or round features, depending on the filling. There are about 100 variations: from the most classic with meat sauce and ham, to the most original ones such as pistachio and spinach, or even baked.
The taste of Sicily in an iconic traditional recipe: pasta with sardines! The rustic taste of blue fish meets the intense aroma of wild fennel and saffron, to which is added the crunchy note of pine nuts and the sweet and sour note of raisins.
Pasta with sardines is a dish with an authentic and true soul that brings the warm colors and heady scents of Sicilian cuisine to the table: a suggestion for both the eyes and the palate!
A dish “worthy of the Gods”, pasta ‘ncasciata is a triumph of taste and richness. It is a Sicilian baked pasta, a single dish that must necessarily be shared, whether it is a family lunch or a gargantuan dinner with friends. The undisputed protagonists of pasta ‘ncasciata are the aubergine, which must be strictly fried and which someone even prepares the day before so that it is even softer and loses all the oil, and the caciocavallo. For caciocavallo, however, here we mean the Sicilian type of cheese which is soft, fresh and stringy. Hard-boiled eggs and cooked ham, or diced salami, complete the work.
The sfincione is the king of Palermo street food. It is a soft leavened dough covered with tomato sauce, salted anchovies, diced caciocavallo, onion and breadcrumbs. Its name is derived from the Latin spongia, “sponge”, or from the Arabic isfanǧ, which indicates a honey donut.
The aubergines, stuffed and cooked in casseroles are a very tasty second dish inspired by the tradition of Southern Italy. In fact, it is possible to find variants of these aubergines, stuffed and cooked in casseroles in Sicilian cuisine and elsewhere in southern Italy. The aubergines utilized are the round violet aubergines and soft and fresh caciocavallo.
This dish is called Aubergines ‘Mbuttunate, or “buttoned” because incisions are created on the surface of the aubergines, inside which garlic, mint and cheese are inserted with a gesture that can recall the buttoning of the buttons in the buttonholes. Excellent both hot and lukewarm and also served as a rich appetizer or side dish.
The Sicilian stuffed squid is a real delicacy of traditional cuisine, the recipe includes the ingredients present in many Sicilian recipes. It is important to clean the squid well, being careful not to pierce them. Then one has to peel the tomatoes and remove the seeds and coarsely chop them. After browning the squid tentacles in olive oil and 2 crushed garlic cloves it is crucial to add the tomatoes and season with salt. After preparing the filling by mixing the breadcrumbs, the egg, a tablespoon of chopped parsley, the garlic, salt and pepper one has to fill the squid and close it at the end with a toothpick.
Sicilian swordfish is a tasty second seafood dish that is prepared in half an hour. It is a very simple recipe, made in a pan, and characterized by the typically Mediterranean flavor of cherry tomatoes, olives and capers. Ingredients that enhance the goodness of a fish with lean and firm meat and a delicate taste. The scent of oregano completes the dish.
Swordfish is one of the precious resources of the Mediterranean Sea and given its diffusion in the waters of Sicily and Calabria, the typical southern cuisine is traditionally rich in swordfish recipes.
After the first and second courses it is necessary to move on to dessert. And here too the choice is innumerable. In any case, a choice is made among the most famous desserts:
This famous Sicilian ricotta cake is a true triumph of taste, with sponge cake, ricotta cream and Martorana fruit. When it comes to the table, it’s always a joy for eyes and taste. It is prepared throughout the year, but is particularly popular on special occasions. This dessert is thought to have Arab origin, dating back to a period between the ninth and eleventh centuries. The Arabs, in fact, introduced sugar cane, lemon, bitter orange, mandarin and almond to Sicily. The queen of pastry is born from the marriage of these wonders and ricotta cheese.
Cannolo represents the essence of Sicily enclosed in a single dessert … unmistakable aromas and textures bite after bite. Sicilian cannoli are a pride of this splendid island. They are among the most loved desserts in the world. Served in restaurants as a dessert to be enjoyed in their original format or in a miniature version, Sicilian cannoli enchant with their typical bubbles and shimmering ricotta cream from the shop windows of pastry shops. They attract attention along the streets of Sicilian towns or during events, sold as sweet street food to be filled at the moment. Like all regional recipes, even for Sicilian cannoli there are secrets and versions that change from city to city or from family to family.
Granita is a cold dessert, typical of Sicilian breakfast and cuisine. It is a semi-frozen liquid compound prepared with water, sugar and a fruit juice or other ingredient (in addition to fruit, almond, pistachio, coffee are more common).
Iris are stuffed and fried sweets, typical of Sicilian pastry and especially Palermo. The origin of the name is to be attributed to a local pastry chef, Antonio Lo Verso, who conceived this dessert, on the occasion of the premiere of Mascagni’s opera “Iris”. They are scraps of slightly sweet and fried leavened dough: a sort of donut that contains a filling that can vary according to taste. The most classic are those filled with ricotta cream, to which chocolate flakes are very often added, but there are many versions, filled with different types of creams. Iris are considered among the most popular street foods of Palermo cuisine, enjoyed by passers-by, at all hours, strictly hot. The crunchy external breading contrasts with the internal softness of the dough and the delicacy of the ricotta cream.
As a delicious and typical fruit of Sicily, the prickly pear must certainly be tasted.
And finally one of the many famous wines of Sicily, the famous Nero d’Avola.
拉斐尔的作品散发着芬芳和清新，清晨空气凉爽、一尘不染。他给人们呈现的是一个公平的世界，画中有一群可爱的人们正在参加一场盛典。在罗马的法内西纳别墅中可以欣赏到特效，即凹球面三角形形状穿插于各种冒险的神话图案中，这些画作揭开了逝去的时光面纱，人们不再觉得这是晦涩难懂的空间图形。拉斐尔的肖像画忠实地描绘了人类的身体和灵魂，这点无人能及。它们甚至忠于字面的真实性，在穿透的光线中被感知，通过智慧和艺术的重构，仿佛置身于各大星座之中。在《金翅雀圣母》画作中， 就像他在佛罗伦萨时期的绝大多数圣母像一样，拉斐尔对玛丽、基督和年轻的施洗者约翰这三个人物进行了定位以符合几何图案设计的目的。虽然这三个人的身体位置自然，但是组合在一起就几乎形成了一个正三角形。和拉斐尔的其他圣母像一样，这位圣母在绘图中年轻美丽。 她身着典型的红蓝衣服，因为红色象征着基督的热情而蓝色则是教堂的代表色。基督和约翰还很小，都只是小婴儿。约翰手里拿着一只金翅雀，基督则伸出手想摸它。画中的背景设计是拉斐尔画作的典型代表。
Raphael the italian genius
A few days after the closing of the “Raffaello Opera Omnia” exhibition, which met with great public success at the Guangzhou Public Library, another tribute to the great Renaissance master was inaugurated. From April 29th to June 27th, it is possible to visit at the Nanshan Museum in Shenzhen, “Raphael and the Classical Canon: Masterpieces from the National Academy of San Luca”.
But who was this Italian genius?
Raphael Sanzio (1483 – 1520) ( 拉斐尔) was born in Urbino, a walled city in the Marche region of Italy, in the Central area of the italian Peninsula in 1483. In China there was the early Ming dynasty (大明). Raphael is the most beloved name in moder art. He rapidly rose to fame and earned his place in the highest rank of Italian Renaissance(文艺复兴) painters alongside the famous names of Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo Buonarroti. Renaissance was the period of European history at the close of the Middle Ages and the rise of the modern world. It was a cultural rebirth from the 14th through the middle of the 17th centuries.
Raphael incorporated the essence of the Italian High Renaissance style of painting. His technique aimed at depicting precise perspective, anatomical correctness, and the idealization of man. Raphael began his career in the most bloodstained and power-ravaged city of Italy: Perugia, the capital city of the region of Umbria in central Italy, located about 164 kilometres (102 miles) north of Rome. In fact, the patronage of tyrants took delight in all that gratified the mind as well as the senses of men.
The story of the boy painter who outshines his master is characteristic of the Renaissance and it is also told of Raphael. 罗马教皇 Pope Julius II hearing of the abilities of the young Raphael sent for him from Florence and the result of his assignment in Rome is one of the great glories of Rome and of the world art.
Though Raphael’s art set trends of the time, he maintained his own unique style through the use of rich colors, precise clarity, serene human grandeur, and apparently effortless compositions. Unquestionably, the harmony and absolute beauty of his works makes Raphael one of the greatest painters to ever live in the minds of most Art History lovers.
The School of Athens is a representation of philosophy and is one of Raphael’s most famous frescoes. The scene takes place in European classical times, (when in China there was Confucius and his disciples), as both the architecture and the garments indicate. Figures representing each subject that must be mastered in order to hold a true philosophic debate – astronomy, geometry, arithmetic, and solid geometry – are depicted in tangible form. The arbiters of this rule, the main figures, Plato (柏拉图) and Aristotle (亚里士多德) are shown in the centre, engaged in such a dialogue.
Raphael recreated the ancient ‘Egyptian blue’ to achieve the intense blue of the sky and sea in his celebrated Triumph of Galatea in Rome’s Villa Farnesina. Galatea radiates life, freedom and freshness in Raphael and antiquity left no incarnation so celebratorily absolute of its own finest conceptions.
Raphael was the master artist of people educated on the Classics (古典作品). Raphael illustrations have trickled down to the lowest strata of society. He has been a true power in western culture because he has enshrined all the noble tenderness and all the glamour of the antique world, in forms so luminous to renew the inspiration of modern men.
The type of beauty and desire to which even modern observer still return is Raphael’s, the type which for four hundred years fascinated Europe.
In Raphael there’s a fragrance, a freshness, the air is cool and dustless as early in the morning. He gives the spectator the presence of a fairer world, where lovely people are taking part in a gracious ceremony.
In the Villa Farnesina in Rome it’s possible to appreciate a peculiar effect, where concave spherical triangles are so admirably filled with paintings of the various adventures of the myths that they can be thought as openings revealing scenes that are passing, never as arduous spaces almost forlornly difficult to deal with.
Raphaels portraits have no superiors as faithful renderings of soul and body. They are truthful even to literal veracity, perceived in piercing light, yet reconstructed with an energy of intellectual and artistic fusion that places them among the constellations.
In Madonna of the Goldfinch painting, as in most of the Madonnas of his Florentine period, Raphael positioned the three figures – Mary, Christ and the young John the Baptist – to fit into a geometrical design. Though the positions of the three bodies are natural, together they form an almost regular triangle. The Madonna is shown young and beautiful, as with Raphael’s various other Madonnas. She is also clothed in red and blue, also typical, for red signifies the passion of Christ and blue was used to signify the church. Christ and John are still very young, only babies. John holds a goldfinch in his hand, and Christ is reaching out to touch it. The background is one typical of Raphael.
Raphael makes us throb with joy. Chinese observers can obviously enjoy Raphael’s art, also only as pure Art, independent of all accidents and all circumstances, confined to the divine task of heightning the vital and mental process. The same can happen to an european observer who know nothing or next to nothing of the myths, poetry, or history of China and yet can take pleasure of the great artists of the wonderful Chung Kwoh.
Raphael was the greatest master of Composition, considered as arrangement and as space, that Europe down to the end of the nineteenth century had ever produced. He was a great Illustrator and a great space-composer. The success he attained was also his ruin because in the later years of his brief life he had to work hastily, supeintending a horde of assistents.
坎帕尼亚的另一个招牌菜品便是意大利面。我们在此提及的是最传统的菜肴，它有点像披萨，是一道既朴实又奢华的菜肴。坎帕尼亚的传统都糅合在这一令人无法抗拒的食谱当中： 意大利面、豆子和贻贝！简单而又美味的意大利面配上豆子和贻贝，成为坎帕尼亚的传统食谱，完美地集海洋与陆地风味于一体。在盛夏吃意大利面和豆类看起来似乎有些格格不入，但得益于5月到8月间是品尝正宗贻贝的最佳时期，故而成为夏天非常受欢迎的一道菜。烤羊肉是坎帕尼亚的一道经典菜肴，在节日餐桌上绝对不容错过。烤羊肉与土豆是绝搭，更加开。坎帕尼亚最古老和传统经典的菜肴之一当属婚礼汤（minestra maritata）。这是一道美味丰富的食谱，通常在节庆日和冬季食用，汤由肉和12种不同的蔬菜烹饪而成。
Culinary introduction tour of Campania, Italy
Sitting to the south of Rome, Campania has a history that is intimately tied to the Roman Empire. Today Campania is an administrative region of Italy. Located on the south-western portion of the Italian Peninsula. The agro-food industry is one of the main pillars of industry of Campania. The organisation of the sector is improving and leading to higher levels of quality and salaries. Campania mostly produces fruit and vegetables, but its cuisine varies within the region. While Neapolitan dishes centre on seafood, Casertan and other heartland cities rely more on fresh vegetables and cheeses. The cuisine of the Metropolitan city of Naples is famous for the historic traditions of its food excellences. Seafood, of course, makes up the majority of the coastal diet, alongside a multitude of fresh fruit and vegetables – typical Mediterranean food. As you get inland, there is ample grazing land available for livestock, making meat dishes more common. Although their origins are disputed, Campania is also home to native water buffalo, and has been for many, many centuries. Where there are buffalo, there is buffalo milk, and where there is buffalo milk, there is mozzarella di bufala (buffalo milk Mozzarella cheese) – one of the great cheeses of the world.
Let’s start with the most famous and international of specialties. Pizza. True symbol of Naples and the whole region, reproduced in a thousand different versions all over the world, here it finds its best expression. The real Neapolitan pizza is soft and thin – easy to fold back on itself and eat on the street – except in the cornice, usually high due to the long leavening.
Among Italy’s countless gastronomic treasures, buffalo mozzarella must rank as a true jewel in the crown. Just think of the dishes that rely on this glorious Mediterranean pearl – a multitude of pizzas, aubergine parmigiana, etc. Around the twelfth century, during the Song dynasty (宋朝) in China, monks all over Italy started utilising their livestock to create cheese that could be matured to feed them all year round. Monks in Campania started creating mozzarella around this time too, using milk from native water buffalo that grazed on the local marshlands. The monks would give out the cheese as a meal to feed visiting pilgrims. The cheese made by monks many hundreds of years ago bears more than a passing resemblance to the mozzarella made by cheesemakers today.
Casatiello pie is one of the Easter specialties, but it is absolutely irresistible on any occasion. It is a kind of savory pie, whose dough is made with flour, lard, yeast, salt and pepper, to which salami, cheese and hard-boiled eggs are added.
Another symbol of Campania is pasta. In this case we are talking about the most traditional dish, which symbolizes – a bit like pizza – a cuisine that appears to be very simple and sumptuous at the same time. The Campania tradition is merged in an irresistible recipe: pasta, beans and mussels! Simple and delicious, pasta with beans and mussels is a traditional recipe from Campania that superbly combines sea and land. It may seem strange to eat pasta and beans in the summer, but this dish is very popular in the summer. This is because the period from May to August is the best to enjoy the authentic flavor of mussels.
Baked lamb is a typical Campania dish that can never be missing on the festive table. The combination with potatoes makes it even more appetizing.
One of the most ancient and traditional typical Campania dishes is the (minestra maritata) married soup. It is a tasty and rich recipe, generally prepared for the holidays and in the winter season. It is a kind of soup made up of meat and twelve types of vegetables.
Fried anchovies is one of the traditional recipes of the coastal areas of the region. To prepare this fish one has to remove heads and guts of whole fresh anchovies (the guts should go easily when you remove their heads). Then one adds flour to a large bowl and dips anchovies in it. Then after heating oil in a large fryiyin pan onecan panfry them . Fried anchovies are served warm sprinkled with salt and drizzled with lemon juice!
Here is one of those dishes from Campania that reminds us how tasty vegetarian cuisine can be. It can be served as an appetizer, as a single dish or as a main course. The ingredients of Parmigiana are few and for this reason they must be of quality and in season: eggplant, tomato, mozzarella-cheese, parmesan, oil, basil .
A rice sartù is a rich and elaborated timbale the recipe for which dates back to the 18th century.
The rice sartù is a traditional Campania dish and is a timbale of rice stuffed with meatballs, hard-boiled eggs, peas and mozzarella-cheese. The rice sartù is a rich and tasty recipe, perfect for Sunday family lunches and excellent in the two white and red versions. The rice sartù is a dish that is often made during the holidays, precisely because many portions are obtained for the various diners and it is also a beautiful dish to look at, choreographic, because it can be cooked in the oven in a donut mold assuming a beautiful ring shape. The preparation is quite long but it is really worth it, and then the rice sartù is very good even the next day: just heat it in the microwave and it will seem like you have just baked it!
Gattò or potato gateau is a flan made with potatoes and eggs, stuffed with meats and cheeses; very simple to make. It is an ancient, typical Neapolitan preparation but also very widespread throughout Southern Italy and Sicily. As with all traditional recipes that are handed down in the family, there are also different variants of the “gattò”: the classic one is potato gateau stuffed with ham, mozzarella and smoked provola cheese (a cheese typically immersed in brine and smoked before being hung to dry for at least 4 months) which, when combined, give the dish a rustic taste and a soft and flowing heart . The taste is amazing!
In Campania do not miss the puff (sfogliatella), I swear, the most absolute good of the entire Campania! Sfogliatella can be curly or smooth, depending on the wrapping that wraps the stuffing of semolina, ricotta and candied fruit. Its character is complexity: now delicate, for its minimal formal style, now intense, for the energic dymnamism with which it emanates its enlightening soul.
Here is another specialty of the Easter period. Pastiera! It is a shortcrust pastry filled with cooked wheat, ricotta, eggs, sugar and candied fruit. Rich and opulent, as is often the case with typical Campania dishes. Absolutely not to be missed during a culinary tour.
We end this excursus to discover the traditional cuisine of Campania with the other sweet symbol of the region, the babà. It is a cake that is not easy to make, consisting of a leavened dough that must be soaked in rum. The perfect way to end a typical lunch!
伟大的意大利作家贾科莫·莱奥帕尔迪（Giacomo Leopardi) (1798年6月29日至1837年6月14日）出生于中国清代嘉庆帝与道光帝统治期间，出生地位于意大利中部的马尔凯地区，和利玛窦是同乡，也是19世纪最伟大的意大利诗人。他是世界文学史上最重要的人物和浪漫主义文学的领军人物之一。他对生存以及人类感官享受和唯物主义的不断反思使他赢得了资深哲学家的美誉。然而至今为止莱奥帕尔迪在中国仍然鲜为人知。
父亲的丰富藏书也给了诗人很大鼓励，父亲的藏书馆中有很多关于亚洲和中国的著作。其中包括1585年由门多萨神父胡安·冈萨雷斯 (Juan Gonzales) 出版的《中国历史》，其中收录了众多有关中国仪式争议的论文集和文献。这一著作对欧洲了解中国具有重要的意义。虽然当时已经具有一些耶稣会士著作的—尽管只是近似的—法文和德文译本，但是莱奥帕尔迪几乎从不阅读与中国思想有关的文章。在《杂感》（Zibaldone）中找不到一丝儒家哲学的痕迹（就连孔子这个名字也仅提及三次），也没有引用四部儒家著作的拉丁释义作者利玛窦（1555-1610）的文字引用。可能莱奥帕尔迪当时只专注于语言研究而忽略了其他的中国文化。莱奥帕尔迪的研究出发点基于自然——理性的矛盾，它也被用来确立人类自然状态与认知过程之间的联系。人类刚出生时，思维元素非常简单，但随着与丰富多元的自然环境（如气候带或文明及社会政治条件）或偶发事件的不断磨合，产生了无法衡量且各式各样的影响（Zib. 1736-7）。它们塑造了人类的心理，形成了人们的习惯、生活方式，甚至形成了各种各样的语言。因此，对莱奥帕尔迪来说，语言的进化与“文明”密不可分，也就是说，随着人类思维的自然状态的改变，语言也就自然而然成使用这种语言的民族性格的反照：一个民族的语言越不“完美”，它离文明也就越远。
现在，在莱奥帕尔迪看来，第一次脱离自然状态发生在书面文字和象形文字的引入。然而，在字母表发明之前，人类仍然保留了一部分原始状态：它诞生于一种“令人钦佩的思想”，即“将书写的符号应用于单词的声音，而不是将之应用于事物和思想”（Zib. 2748），就像象形文字和汉字表意文字一样。此外，字母表可能是由一个人单独设想出来的，因为根据他的观点一项发明作为人类精神的奇迹（或者作为一项最为轰动的发明，它的起源也许是偶然的）是不可能被许多人重复的（Zib. 2620）。所有其他的字母表均从这个单一的原始字母表衍生而来。
对莱奥帕尔迪来讲，如果一种非字母语言没有消亡（例如埃及象形文字），而字母语言也不作为现代性唯一可能的文字，那简直是一个奇迹。一方面，他也认为“如果一个民族不与其他文学民族往来或者从来没有和其他文学民族有过贸易往来，那么它们从未或者仍然没有字母表（Zib. 2620）；另一方面，他也观察到“中华民族不可思议的、奇特的不流动性和不变性一定有很大一部分是因为他们没有字母表或字母而造成的，而是用字符来表达事物和思想”。“一言以蔽之，这一个民族——莱奥帕尔迪最后总结道——肯定是静止的（Zib. 942-3），因为其民族性质以及改变或破坏这个民族非常古老而普遍的习俗非常困难，进而不能（或不愿意）采用字母，并普遍地介绍完全不同的新产品”（Zib. 3671）。因此，字母的缺失既是汉字不变的原因，同时也是汉字缺乏变化的结果。
莱奥帕尔迪的困惑绝不仅于此。他的另一个明确信念是语言的民族文化特性：他断言“语言和人类和民族几乎是同一件事”。在这一民族——文化特征中，这位诗人还主张书面语言应该去适应口头语言，而不是反之。然而，这一假设不适用于汉语，因为汉语不仅独立于口语，而且在写作和阅读之间具有复杂的独立性。莱奥帕尔迪进一步解释说：汉语写作并不真正代表文字，而是代表事物。因此，每一个人都注意到他们的书写系统几乎是完全独立于语音的， 这样你就能找到一个完全懂得汉语书写含义的人，而不需要知道这个语言的任何语音，并且可以用自己的语言来阅读汉语书籍，或者用他自己喜欢的方式来阅读，也就是说，可以用他想要用的汉字而不会损害整篇文章的智慧也不会损害他的品味。另一方面，他们在中国居住20年虽然中文说得很好，别人也能听懂，但却他们连最简单的书都看不懂（Zib. 944-5）。
因此，在这种情况下，语言—文学对等行不通，因为即使语言丰富了文学并给予文学生命，但是语言也不会得到进化：实际上，中国有“无数的书籍并且产生了孔子，拥有自己的文，也造就了大量的文人，但是它没有字母表”（Zib. 2620-1），这也违背了“没有语言的进步，人类思想的进步就是零“这一原则（Zib. 1238）。
然而，对于汉语独特特性的困惑与惊叹并没有阻止莱奥帕尔迪对他的写作和语言符号的批判。在这位诗人看来，词语的目的在于对认知心理数据的物质化和敏感物化：“一个没有文字或者没有表达的概念逃过了我们的眼睛，或在我们的思想中产生了不明确和不了解的错误。它通过文字获得成型，它几乎是一种可见的、敏感的、受限制的形式“（Zib. 95）。因此，像汉语这种语言符号并不能代表文字，而只能代表事物和思想的书写文字，当然也得不到莱奥帕尔迪的认可，相反它甚至还认为：中文书写文字并不是真正的书面语言，因为如果一个语言与文字无关，那它就称不上是语言，而仅仅只是另一种符号而已；正如绘画不是一种语言，虽然它能表达和象征着画家的事物和思想（Zib. 1059）。
Born between the chinese reigns of Jiaqing Emperor ( 嘉慶帝) and Daoguang Emperor ( 道光帝) of the Qing Dynasty, the great Italian writer Giacomo Leopardi (29 June 1798 – 14 June 1837), born in theMarche region in the Central area of Italy, the same region of LÌ MĂDÒU (利瑪竇) is considered the greatest Italian poet of the nineteenth century. He is also one of the most important figures in the literature of the world, as well as one of the principals of literary Romanticism. His constant reflection on existence and on the human condition—of sensuous and materialist inspiration—has also earned him a reputation as a deep philosopher. However up to now, Leopardi is still not well known in China. Leopardi read his way voraciously through ancient and modern literature and began his investigations on China and the Chinese language, entrusting them to a notebook which itself remained unpublished until 1898, when it appeared in Italian under the name Zibaldone—that is, “miscellany” or “hodgepodge.” in April 1821. It is the beginning of that period (’21 -23) in which his theory of languages took shape. It was, however, a brief, albeit intense interest: already after May of the same year he will no longer dealt with the subject. Leopardi was attracted by the strange relationship between ideographic writing and the Chinese soul, a strange magic that,in his opinion, allowed that civilization to remain almost immutable, coherent and united.
The curiosity of the poet in this regard was aroused by the reading of the “Annals of Sciences and Letters”, a Milanese magazine where numerous articles and sinological studies were published. In particular, an anonymous essay in three parts entitled On the Penal Code of China, extracts from the Essay on Chinese Language and Literature by Abel Rémusat and, by the same author, the Elements of Chinese grammar, from which the young Leopardi learned the basics of Chinese language and writing. The question of the Language amazed the poet-philosopher who started a long meditation or investigation on the link between the history of the language and the cultural and spiritual events of peoples and nations.
Considerable encouragements for the poet also came from the very rich paternal library, which possessed many writings relating to Asia and China. Among these the “Historia della China” (History of China) which contained a collection of essays and documents on the controversy of “Chinese Rites” published by Father Juan Gonzales of Mendoza in 1585. This work was of fundamental importance for the knowledge of China in Europe. Leopardi hardly read the works concerning Chinese thought, despite the existence of some – albeit approximate – translations in French and German written by the Jesuit fathers. There is no trace, in the Zibaldone, of Confucian philosophy (Confucius himself is cited only three times), nor there are quotations of Matteo Ricci LÌ MĂDÒU (1555-1610), author of a Latin paraphrase of the Four Confucian books ever mentioned. Probably Leopardi, taken as he was at that time by the linguistic investigation, concentrated exclusively on it, leaving out the rest of Chinese culture.
The axiom from which Leopardi’s investigation starts is the Nature-Reason antinomy, which is also used to establish a relationship between the natural state of man and cognitive processes. At birth, the “intellectual factory of man” is made up of “very few elements”; however these, in the friction with the most varied natural circumstances (for example the climatic zone or the civil and socio-political condition) or accidental, “produce infinite and very varied effects” (Zib. 1736-7). They shape the psychology of man up to constitute habits, forms of life, and even various and diversifiedlanguages. For Leopardi the evolution of language, therefore, goes hand in hand with the ‘civilization’ – that is, with the alteration of the natural state – of the human mind, and the language, therefore, turns out to be the mirror of the character of the nation that speaks that particular language: the less the language of a people is “perfect”, the further it is far from civilization.
Now, according to Leopardi, the first detachment from the natural state took place with the introduction of writing and hieroglyphics. However, man still retained a part of his primitive state until the invention of the alphabet: it was born from the “admirable thought” of “applying the signs of writing to the sounds of words instead of applying them to things and ideas” (Zib. 2748), as was done with hieroglyphic writing and Chinese ideographic writing. Furthermore, the alphabet would have been conceived by a single man, since according to his opinion, it is not presumable that an invention which is a miracle of the human spirit (or perhaps has its origin from chance as the most sensational inventions) has been repeated by many people (Zib. 2620). All the other alphabets would then be derived from the spread of this single original alphabet.
In the light of what has been said, if a word could summarize the sentiment of the young Giacomo Leopardi concerning China, the term would probably be “bewilderment”. For him, a nation that has no alphabet remained close to the primitive state, yet “so cultured” and capable of producing boundless literature. A very rich civilization, yet immobile, unchanged for centuries, and which contradicted his thesis of the relationship between language and the evolution of civilization. In front of China the Leopardian investigation, in its proceeding to the sound of analogies and inductions, can only be suspended with an astonished wonder.
For Leopardi it is a mystery that there can be a non-alphabetic language that is not dead (such as the Egyptian hieroglyphics) and that therefore alphabetic languages are not the only possible scripts in modernity. On the one hand, he maintains that ” nations which do not have, or have had no trade with, any other literary nation, have not had or do not have an alphabet” (Zib. 2620); on the other, he observes that “[the] marvelous and strange immobility and immutability […] of the Chinese nation, must certainly have derived in a very large part, and derive from their having no alphabet or letters, […] but characters expressing the things and ideas “. “Such a people – concludes Leopardi – must in short necessarily be stationary” (Zib. 942-3), not having been able (or willing) to adopt the alphabet “due to its nature, and the difficulty of changing or destroying customs very ancient and universal in the nation, […] and universally introducing completely new and too different kinds of them “(Zib. 3671). Thus the absence of the alphabet is a cause and at the same time a consequence of Chinese immobility.
Leopardi’s perplexities do not end there. Another explicit conviction of him was that of the national-cultural character of languages: he affirmed that “language and man and nations are almost the same thing. “. In this national-cultural character the poet also argued that the written language should conform to the spoken language, and not vice versa. This postulate, however, is not applicable to the Chinese language, which is not only completely autonomous from the spoken language, but also has a complex independence between writing and reading. Leopardi explained that the Chinese writing does not really represent the words but it represents things. Therefore everyone observes that their writing system is almost independent of speech: […] so that one could find someone who fully understood the meaning of Chinese writing, without knowing a syllable of the language, and reading the Chinese books in their own language, or in whichever way he pleased, that is, by applying to the Chinese characters those words he wanted, without detriment to any of the perfect intelligence of the writing, or even to his taste […] And so on the other hand, often, after having resided twenty years in China they are not able to read the easiest book, although they can speak Chinese well, and make themselves understood (Zib. 944-5).
It is very difficult to learn to read and write in Chinese, since the characters are not “in the hands and in the use of the people”: they, therefore, “retain their essential forms and their significance much more easily than do the words that are in everyday and universal use”. Consequently, “having preserved the use, form, and meaning of ancient characters,” concludes Leopardi, “the full understanding of the ancient Chinese scriptures” is also preserved (Zib. 1179-80).
The poet also maintained that «[a] language is never formed or established, except by applying it to literature. […] A language not applied to literature has never been formed or established, and it is never perfect ”(Zib. 1037-8). Even in this case, however, the Leopardian axiom does not find confirmation in the Chinese language.
According to Leopardi the Chinese language may even become extinct and its characters remain: the language can perish, and the literature can be preserved which has almost nothing to do with the language; but it is very closely linked with characters. From this fact he argued that Chinese literature can have little influence on the language, and that despite the richness of its literature, it can nevertheless and will perhaps always be considered as an uneducated or poorly educated language (Zib. 1019).
So that little or no Chinese literature can affect the language, and therefore the Chinese language cannot make much progress (Zib. 1059).
In this case, therefore, the language-literature equivalence does not work, the language does not evolve even if it gives life to a rich and erudite literature: in fact, China “has infinite books, has produced a Confucius, has literature, has a large number of literati, […] but he has no alphabet “(Zib. 2620-1), also contradicting the principle according to which” without the progress of the language […] the progress of the human spirit is nil “(Zib. 1238).
However, the bewilderment and wonder at the uniqueness of the Chinese language did not prevent Leopardi from criticizing his writing and the linguistic signs it uses. The purpose of the word, according to the poet, is the material and sensitive objectification of the cognitive psychological datum: “an idea without a word or way of expressing it escapes us, or errs in our thoughts as indefinite and ill-known to ourselves we conceived it. It is through the word that it takes shape, and almost a visible, sensitive, and circumscribed form “(Zib. 95). Therefore a writing like the Chinese one, whose linguistic signs do not represent words, but things and ideas, certainly could not meet the approval of Leopardi, who even goes so far as to affirm that: Chinese writing is not really a written language, since what has nothing to do with words is not language, but another kind of signs; just as painting is not a language, although it expresses and signifies the things and thoughts of the painter (Zib. 1059).
Leopardi is more precise and severe about the nature of writing in another passage from Zibaldone. He affirms that writing must be writing and not algebra. It must represent the words with the agreed signs, and it must express and arouse the ideas and feelings, or the thoughts and feelings of the soul, this is the office of the words thus represented. “What is this clutter of dashes, dots, spaces, double and triple admiring points, what do I know? I am seeing that hieroglyphic writing is back in fashion, and feelings and ideas are no longer wanted to be written but represented, and not knowing how to mean things with words, we would like to paint or signify them, as do the Chinese whose writing does not represent words, but things and ideas. What else is this if not returning the art of writing to childhood?” (Zib. 975-6).
It is precisely from this Chinese childhood, however, that Leopardi was ineffably attracted: what fascinated him – also, or perhaps precisely because he could not understand it – was the paradox of a people so distant, different, closed, but civil “in a very different way and that he investigated, albeit briefly, through an exclusively historical-linguistic analysis. At a time when the Enlightenment myth of a “model for Europe” China, promoted by the Jesuits, was collapsing, Leopardi tried, with the exquisitely modern mentality that distinguished him, to look at China in a new way, that is, as to a tangible historical reality which, despite its diversity and uniqueness, is an integral part of the history of languages, and therefore of the “history of the human mind” (Zib. 2591).
圣莱乌乔的纺织工厂，占地82公顷，满足了劳动者的温饱需要，为纺织工厂工作的劳动者建设的排屋式住宅区由著名建筑师Francesco Collecini（弗朗西斯科•科勒西尼）(1723 -1804)设计。人们虽生活艰苦，却不用受雇主的约束。圣莱乌乔－斐迪南波利是18世纪末意大利最大的丝绸加工和丝绸产品生产中心，生产丝绸面纱和丝袜加工，这儿还有一所刺绣学校。在波旁王朝的推动下，圣莱乌乔开始了现代工业的发展，成为众多纺纱厂和纺织厂的典范。
殖民地废除遗嘱,去世者遗产由子女和未亡配偶分配。如果没有子女或未亡配偶，遗产归慈善基金会Monte degli Ofani所有。
每个制造者，也就是丝绸工厂的劳动者，须将其部分收入捐给专为残疾人、老人和病人设立的慈善基金会Cassa della Carità。简言之:平等、团结、援助、社会保障、人权。
San Leucio-Ferdinandopoli, the first example of
a socialist republic initiated without revolution
When in China there was Qianlong Emperor (25 September 1711 – 7 February 1799), the fifth Emperor of the Qing dynasty, San Leucio- Ferdinandopoli the first example of a socialist republic in contemporary history, was created in Southern Italy.
Utopian socialism is often described as the presentation of visions and outlines for imaginary or futuristic ideal societies, with positive ideals being the main reason for moving society in such a direction. These visions of ideal societies can be compared with Marxist-inspired revolutionary social democratic movements.
It is curious that a sort of socialist republic, San Leucio- Ferdinandopoli , goes back to a so called enlightened despot, Ferdinand IV of Bourbon (1751-1825), in the same time when another enlightened King, the king of Portugal Joseph I, “the Reformer” ( 1714 – 1777) submissive to England, crushed the first socialist republics in history in the Brazilian colonies, designed, founded and directed by the Jesuits.
The Statute of the city of San Leucio- Ferdinandopoli was based on the principle of equality of citizens and was drawn up personally by the king Ferdinand IV of Bourbon.
It anticipated, albeit in the perspective of an enlightened King, the same concepts of the Paris Commune of 1870, which was notoriously crushed in blood.
The Colony of San Leucio- Ferdinandopoli was founded in 1776, with the accommodation of the first 17 families, who later formed a nucleus of 214 inhabitants. The village of San Leucio is located near the city of Caserta, Southern Italy, on the road that leads to the Volturno river.
In San Leucio there was a textile factory which owned 82 hectares of land for the food needs of the workers, who lived in terraced houses designed by the celebrated architect Francesco Collecini (1723 -1804). The life that was led there was hard but free from employer constraints. With the processing of silk veils and stockings and with an embroidery school, San Leucio-Ferdinandopoli was the largest plant for the processing of silks and the production of silk products existing in Italy at the end of the century XVIII. It was a model for the numerous spinning mills and fabric factories that were established in the kingdom, in which a modern industrial development took place, promoted by the Bourbons Dynasty.
The structure of San Leucio-Ferdinandopoli was original and organic, equipped with houses for the workers, a church, crops and factories and the living conditions offered to the workers and their families were far better than that of the rising working class.
The main street of the city leads to Piazza della Seta (Silk Square) a semicircular space in the background of which is the entrance gate to the colony and the Belvedere. A majestic triumphal arch leads to the Parish and the Belvedere.
Higher up on the level of the workers’ houses is the Royal Casino, to the right of which stands the Spinning Mill.
The clothing in the colony was simple, practical and the same for everyone. The alarm clock rang very early, the workers attended mass and immediately went to the workplace. There was a break at noon for lunch. Workers resumed work at 1.30 p.m. and dismounted at sunset.
Education was compulsory and education aimed at forming a civil conscience. Marriage was regulated in order to preserve the community from dangerous outside influences.
If a girl wanted to marry a stranger, she received a dowry of fifty ducats and she had to leave. If the opposite happened, the foreign bride had to take a weaving course and then fully entered the community.
Wills were abolished and the deceased’s inheritance was divided between the children and the surviving spouse. If these were not there, the inheritance was forfeited from the Monte degli Ofani, a Charitable fund.
There was also a Fund which could lend interest-free money to those who needed it and who provided pensions. It was fed by the citizens through a monthly levy on the paycheck.
Quarrels between citizens were forbidden and minor differences were resolved by the elderly and the parish priest.
There was a prison with a superintendent. It is said that once a Leucian citizen ended up there. The superintendent had him take the loom to his cell so that he would “not idle” and continue to provide for the sustenance of the family. He had to produce three pairs of socks a week.
The code written by the King was applied to the letter: a mixture of royal and utopian socialism, which still has a strong suggestion today: “I give you these laws, respect them and you will be happy”.
It was 1789: the revolution was boiling in Paris. The pillars of the Constitution of San Leucio-Ferdinandopoli were three:
education was considered the origin of public tranquility;
good faith was the first of the social virtues;
and merit was the only distinction between individuals. Luxury was forbidden. The inhabitants had to be inspired by absolute equality, without distinction of conditions and rank, and all dress the same way.
School was compulsory, starting from the age of six: the boys were then put to learn a job according to their aptitudes and their desires.
Smallpox vaccination was also mandatory. The heads of the families elected the elders, the magistrates (who remained in office for a year), and the civil judges.
Each manufacturer, that is, each employee of the silk factories, was required to pay part of the earnings to the Cassa della Carità, another Charitable Fund set up for the disabled, the old and the sick.
In short: equality, solidarity, assistance, social security, human rights.
Ferdinand IV had hit the bull’s-eye before the French Revolution itself brought home his conquests.
后来，意大利逐渐成为欧洲最大的丝绸生产国——意大利南部的巴勒莫、墨西拿、卡坦扎罗等城市因此而闻名。桑蚕养殖和丝绸加工开始兴起于意大利的巴勒莫，然后传到欧洲其他地方。1146年，随着巴勒莫、雷焦卡拉布里亚、卡坦扎罗和墨西拿等地丝绸工厂的开设，标志着伟大的意大利丝绸艺术的开始；1272年，卢切斯·弗朗切斯科·博尔盖萨诺（Lucchese Francesco Borghesano）在博洛尼亚开设了第一家粗纱厂。丝线工业在卢卡蓬勃发展，之后在十三世纪末兴盛于博洛尼亚；1621年的编年史中对博洛尼亚工厂进行了相关描述。
The production of silk in Italy – a brief survey
European archaeologists and art historians discovered early Chinese silks at the beginning of the twentieth century after some examples from the Han (206 B.C.E.-220 C.E.) and Tang (618-907 C.E.) dynasties had been found in various parts of West China, Central Asia and in the Middle East.
The production of silk originated in China in the Neolithic period (Yangshao culture, 4th millennium BC). Silk production was confined to China until the Silk Road opened at some point during the latter part of the 1st millennium BC, though China maintained its virtual monopoly over silk production for another thousand years.
Silk has a millennial history. It is said that the birth of the silkworm is attributed to the Chinese Empress Xi Ling Shi, but probably the silk was known in China as early as 3000 BC.
The silken robes that were reserved for Chinese emperors became part of the wardrobe of the richer social class, becoming a wanted luxury item that was spread to the areas reached by the Chinese merchants for the qualities of lightness and beauty.The abundance of silk production during the Han and Tang Dynasties, is probably related to the fact that, in regions where sericulture was practised, peasants had to weave bolts of silk cloth to pay taxes, therefore weavers wove, with the grege silk they had produced, the simplest plain cloth abundantly.
Silk arrived in Italy during the XI century, Western Xia 西夏 Emperors in China. According to a story by the historian Procopius, the Byzantine emperor Justinian, based in Constantinople, today Istanbul in Turkey, obtained the first silkworm eggs. He had sent two monks to Central Asia, and they were able to smuggle silkworm eggs to him hidden in rods of bamboo. While under the monks’ care, the eggs hatched, though they did not cocoon before arrival.
And what happened next is that Italy became the largest producer of European silk – the cities of Palermo, Messina, and Catanzaro, in southern part of Italy, were very famous. From Palermo, the cultivation of the silkworm and silk processing would spread first in Italy and then in Europe. If the 1146, with the opening of silk mills in Palermo, Reggio Calabria, Catanzaro and Messina, marked the beginning of great art Italian silk, the 1272 saw the opening the first roving in Bologna, by Lucchese Francesco Borghesano. Silk yarn industries flourished in Lucca and then, at the end of the thirteenth century, in Bologna; the “Mulino Bolognese” (“Bolognese Mill” in Italian) is well described in a chronicle of 1621:
“Some big machines, which were moved from a small gutter from the Reno water, move in the “Bolognese Mill” which improved the machines used from Lucca by a water wheel and a mechanical winder and allowed to obtain smoother and stronger yarns than those produced by hand or other mechanical means”. This was a strong technical and mechanical energy innovation for the canals of Bologna, according to many historians of the Industrial Revolution the “Bolognese Silk Mill” is an important model of proto-industrial system that enabled the city to market yarn throughout Europe through the Navile Canal.
The Italian record was in fact disputed by the region of Lyon in France, a nation in western part of Europe, in the seventeenth century, when many artisans from Catanzaro came under French rule. The breeding of silkworms was an important income support to the agricultural economy and the production and trade of fabrics – together with that of wool was a very profitable industry that gave power and wealth to the corporations who practiced it, as in Florence, city in northern Italy, where the Art of Silk was acknowledged as one of the seven major guilds.
The Betrothed (Italian: I promessi sposi [i proˈmessi ˈspɔːzi]) the most important first Italian historical novel by Alessandro Manzoni, first published in 1827 and widely read novel in the Italian language talks about Silk. Silk, in some way, is the third veiled protagonist of the novel, together with the two well-known characters Renzo and Lucia.
In 1880s Italy was the world’s second largest producer of raw silk, second only to China. Silk was the country’s largest export, bringing in one-third of the value of all exports. By the 1870s all the stages of silk manufacturing were carried out in Italy.
Reeling employed 110,000 employees, 80,000 of them women, and throwing employed 75,000 more in the mid-1870s. Less than 15,000 were employed in weaving, most of them in or near Como, a city in nOrthern Italy, and there were only 445 power-looms. Silk was closely linked to agriculture, it not only processed an ‘agricultural’ raw material, but it relied on ‘agricultural’ labour (peasants’ wives and children) and it provided a big stimulus to agricultural investment. All stages of the process, even the mulberry trees, were concentrated in Northern Italy, particularly in Lombardy after the wars for Italian Unification. Before Italian Unification with the so called “liberation” of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in 1860 and the new Kingdom of Italy proclaimed on March 17, 1861, with the royal family of Piedmont-Sardinia as the new ruling monarchs of Italy, Southern Italy had an important silk industry. This southern industry was destoyed by high taxes whuich did not protect the local product in favour of the northern one.
The market of silk within Italy was very small and the whole silk industry depended on foreign sales. It was a chancy business because of silkworm desease which could wreck it at any time. This disease was widespread after 1875 and it reduced silkworm productionby over 40 per cent. Moreover, long-distance transport became much cheaper in 1870s and Chinese and other Asian silk undercut the italian production in European market. Silk was the first ‘leading sector’ for Italian economic development in the nineteenth century, but by 1880 it was leading straight into depression.
Not being confined to use in clothing, silk was used for a number of applications within China, such as writing; the color of the silk worn also held social importance and formed an important guide of social class during the Tang dynasty.
Today, along with China and Japan, Italy is at the top of the world’s raw silk production: excellent are the factories based in Catania ( Palazzo Auteri) and San Leucio (Caserta) in Southern Italy, Como and area of Meldola city in the Forlì area, in northern Italy.
根据汉朝史学家的记载，166年，罗马帝国皇帝马可.奥勃留（Marcus Aurelius）（161-180年）曾遣使者出访汉朝，朝见汉桓帝（146-168年）。《后汉书》卷第八十八章中有一段记载：“至桓帝延熹九年，大秦王安敦遣使自日南徼外献……”（注：日南，越南中部海岸的郡县，日南郡当时属于汉朝）《后汉书》是一部于五世纪编撰的关于东汉时期（6-189年）历史的巨著。然而，现代研究更倾向于将安敦（Antun）看成一名叫做马可.奥勃留（Marcus Aurelius Antoninus）的来自巴尔米拉的当地商贾。
据记载，284年另一批罗马使者来到汉朝，可能是由皇帝Marcus Aurelius Carus（282-283年）派遣来朝见汉帝。随着汉朝与西域和天竺（印度）的频繁往来，于一世纪形成了丝绸之路。之后，汉朝逐渐加强了与罗马帝国的贸易往来，古罗马人对汉代丝绸的迷恋程度可以确证这一点。从一世纪开始，汉代丝绸通过帕提亚王朝（古伊朗的一个主要政治和文化强国）抵达罗马。汉代丝绸的进口导致了罗马大量黄金外流。后来，以致到了这样一种程度，丝绸衣服被认为是一种颓废和不道德的迹象。出于经济和道德上的原因，罗马帝国的元老院颁布了几项禁止丝绸服装的法令，但都无济于事。当另一批罗马使者离开到东方时，罗马帝国和汉朝的关系还持续了一段时间。
The silk road from China to Rome: new routes on the way of ancient meetings
The Far East and the West were united by the Silk Road which was developed from the expansion of king of Macedonia (336–323 BCE) Alexander the Great’s Empire, towards Central Asia to the Fergana Valley, a valley spread across eastern Uzbekistan, southern Kyrgyzstan and northern Tajikistan, on the borders of the present Chinese region of Xinjiang.
The relations between the Roman Empire and China began indirectly in the second century BCE. with the opening of the famous Silk Road, but it was in 130 BCE. with the Chinese embassy of the imperial emissary and explorer of the Han dynasty, Zhang Qiān (114 BCE), followed, more than a century later, by an attempt to send a delegation to Rome of the noted Han diplomat and General Bān Chāo (33-102) that the two empires gradually got closer and closer.
Around 130 BCE following the reports of Ambassador Zhang Qiān, the embassies of the Han dynasty to Central Asia took place, the Chinese emperor Hàn Wŭdì 141-87 BCE ( 汉武帝) was in fact very interested in the development of commercial relations with the sophisticated urban civilizations of Bactria, between the Hindu Kush and the Āmū Daryā and Parthia in north-eastern Iran. Consequently of this every ten years or so, the Chinese sent numerous embassies that reached the Syrian territories of the Seleucid kingdom (312–64 BCE), an ancient empire that at its greatest extent stretched from Thrace in Europe to the border of India.
However, according to the roman historian Florus (74AD-130 AD), in the time of Augustus (63BCE-14 AD), during 東漢, Dōnghàn Dynasty, Rome already had relations with China and other remote peoples of the East, because they sent embassies to the Emperor when in the Roman Empire all people were in peace in the west.
Florus wrote in the two books of the Epitome of Roman History, written in admiration of the Roman people, about a group of Chinese envoys that came to Rome shortly after Augustus took his place on the throne. Florus believed that they had simply been drawn to the magnanimity of Rome, but Chinese history suggests that they were just trying to see who was in the West.
The Chinese were immensely different from the Romans and shocked the people who saw them. Florus wrote: (original text in latin: “Nam et Scythae misere legatos et Sarmatae amicitiam petentes. Seres etiam habitantesque sub ipso sole Indi, cum gemmis et margaritis elephantos quoque inter munera trahentes, nihil magis quam longinquitatem uiae inputabant – quadriennium inpleuerant; et tamen ipse hominum color ab alio uenire caelo fatebatur.”)
English translation: “Indeed, the Scythians and Sarmatians sent ambassadors asking for friendship. Furthermore, the Chinese and Indians, who live under the same sun, who, along with precious stones and pearls, also brought elephants as gifts, earned great credit for the length of the journey made – they had accomplished it in four years; and the very color of the skin of those men already testified that they came from another heaven”.
In 97 AD, the Chinese general Bān Chāo with an army of at least 70,000 men, during a campaign conducted against the Huns, went west until he reached the shores of the Caspian Sea. During this expedition the Chinese general sent an envoy named(甘英) Gān Yīng in the direction of Rome, who was called “Da Qin” by them.
The Chinese emissary never reached the capital, stopping on the coasts of the Black Sea before returning home. However, Gān Yīng, coming into contact with realities so different from those he was used to, made a detailed report on the western lands he visited. Speaking of the Roman Empire he wrote: “Its territory covers several thousand lǐ (one li equals about half a kilometer), is made up of about 400 fortified cities. It has enslaved many dozen small states. The city walls are of stone. They have set up a network of post offices … There are pines and cypresses. ” or again: “It is from this land that all the various and wonderful objects of foreign states come”.
Some Chinese historians recorded that an embassy from the court of the emperor Marcus Aurelius (r. AD 161-180) was sent to the Han emperor of China, Huan-ti (漢桓帝) (r. AD 146-168) was received in China in 166 AD.” In the ninth yanxi year [AD 166], during the reign of Emperor Huan, the king of Da Qin (the Roman Empire), Andun (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus), sent envoys from beyond the frontiers through Rinan (Commandery on the central Vietnamese coast)”. This is a passage of a passage in the eighty-eighth chapter of the Hou Hanshu (后汉书), known in English as the Book of the Later Han. This is a fifth-century AD compiled history which addresses the period of the Eastern Han Dynasty (AD 6-189). However, recent research today tends to identify “Antun” in a merchant named Marco Aurelio Antonino, a native of the city of Palmyra.
The Roman mission arrived in China, probably following the sea route, entering from the Jinan border. It brought as gifts rhino horns, ivory, and turtle shells, most likely bought in the markets of southern Asia. During the same period, and perhaps precisely through this embassy, the Chinese obtained a treatise on astronomy from the Roman Empire.
Yu Huan (鱼豢)was a respected scholar and historian, held in high regard in the Chinese society of the 3rd century. Huan published a long text called Weilüe, or “Brief Account of Wei”, which was originally lost. Some chapters, however, survived and were published in 429. Among others, a part of the surviving text discusses the Roman Empire, which was known as Da Qin — literally, The Great Qin. Yu Huan did not mention his sources in the text that has survived. Some of this new data presumably came to China via traders from the Roman Empire. Land communications with the West apparently continued relatively uninterrupted to Cao Wei after the fall of the Eastern Han dynasty.
After these first meetings, the embassies were sadly not registered until a trace appeared that spoke of gifts sent in the early 3rd century AD, from the Roman Emperor to the Chinese Emperor( 曹叡), Cáo Ruì, of the Wei Kingdom. The gifts consisted of glassware in various colors. The embassy may have been sent by one of the numerous emperors who followed one another in that period, Alexander Severus, Maximin Thrace, Gordian I, Gordian II, Pupieno and Balbino, Gordian III.
Another embassy from Rome is registered in the year 284 AD, it is described as a bearer of “tributes” to the Chinese Empire. This mission may have been sent by the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Carus (282 – 283 AD).
The Silk Road was thus formed in the 1st century AD, following the numerous Chinese attempts to consolidate communication with the Western world and India.
As a consequence of these events, an intense trade with the Roman Empire soon developed, confirmed by the great passion of the Romans for Chinese silk which from the 1st century arrived in Rome through the Parthians, a major political and cultural power in ancient Iran.
The importation of Chinese silk caused huge outflows of gold and so silk robes were considered decadent and immoral. The Roman Senate, for economic and moral reasons, issued several edicts in vain to prohibit silk garments.
The relations between the Roman Empire and China lasted over time, when other Roman embassies left to the east.
《梦李白》（Sognando Li Po）是意大利诗人克劳迪奥·达米亚尼（Claudio Damiani）的诗歌集，如同杜甫一样，达米亚尼歌颂了这位中国诗仙的生平，与李白对话，甚至与他和其他中国诗人产生共鸣。正是在李白和杜甫的告别中，克劳迪奥·达米亚尼开始了他最初的“虚幻”之旅：
A un certo punto, giunti su un’altura
dove c’erano quattro baracche
scesero dal carro. Cadeva ancora la neve
dal cielo, e dai rami di un grosso pino
sopra le loro teste.
Il carrettiere slegò i cavalli. I due poeti e il seguito
presero stanza nella locanda affumicata.
Tutta la notte Li Po e Tu Fu alzarono le coppe;
gli ufficiali del seguito s’erano presto
ma loro ancora amabilmente conversavano.
Tu Fu parlò della sua casa natale,
dell’infanzia felice nella natura, dei giochi
Li Po parlò della capitale,
di feste e danze, dei giorni fugaci della giovinezza.
Ed ecco si fece bianca la finestra dell’alba,
una luce scialba, un biancore irreale penetrò
Parlarono ancora dei loro morti,
parenti e amici che avevano dovuto abbandonare.
Ad un tratto Li Po si alzò,
Tu Fu stette ancora seduto per un po’, poi anche lui
stettero in piedi per molto tempo in silenzio,
mentre tutti dormivano, nel silenzio della locanda
La neve fuori aveva smesso di cadere
e il vento si era quietato.
Li Po prese la bisaccia e s’incamminò
sulla strada bianca.
1957年，克劳迪奥·达米亚尼出生于意大利南部福贾省圣乔瓦尼罗通，但他很小的时候就搬到了罗马，现在仍居住在罗马。1980年代上半叶，他是 《Braci》杂志的创刊人之一。他的第一本诗集《Fraturno 》（1987年）和随后的《La mia casa》（1994年）被收录在《La miniera》（Fazi，1997年，书名取自书尾的新章节）中。其他诗集有《Eroi 》（Fazi，2000年）、《Attorno al fuoco》（Avagliano，2006年）、《梦李白》（Marietti，2008年）、《Poesie》（Fazi，2010年）和《Il fico sulla fortezza》（Fazi，2012年）。
An Italian poet inspired by T’ang Poetry: Claudio Damiani
Chinese poetry is different than its Western equivalent. Each Chinese character is a word/picture. Because the characters have remained basically unaltered for thousands of years, each holds an emotional charge. The characters flow down the page, each painting a picture, evoking an emotion. Each character builds on the last and acts as a foundation for the next.
The poet Tu Fu was born to a literary family in the Hunan Province of China in 712, his family’s social position assured Tu Fu a traditional Confucian education. Tu Fu failed an Imperial test in 736, which, if he had passed, would have assured him a civil service post and a life of relative security. After failing the test, he traveled throughout China and earned a reputation as a humanistic poet. It was during this time that he met his idol, the poet Li Po, a Taoist who celebrated the virtues of love, wine, and nature. The two traveled together for a while and Tu Fu experimented Taoism, but was unable to balance the world he lived in with the disassociation of Taoism, and soon returned to the capital and Confucianism.
Tu Fu was well regarded during the 740s, even though he held no official position, had no money, and failed a second Imperial examination. In the mid 750s he sought and attained Imperial recognition in the form of a minor appointment, married, and acquired some land.
Dreaming of Li Po by Tu Fu
After the separation of death one can eventually swallow back one’s grief, butthe separation of the living is an endless, unappeasable anxiety. Frompestilent Chiang-nan no news arrives of the poor exile. That my old friendshould come into my dream shows how constantly he is in my thoughts. I fearthat this is not the soul of a living man: the journey is so immeasurably far.When your soul left, the maple woods were green: on its return the passes wereblack with night. Lying now enmeshed in the net of the law, how did you findwings with which to fly here? The light of the sinking moon illumines everybeam and rafter of my chamber, and I half expect it to light up your face. Thewater is deep, the waves are wide: don’t let the water-dragons get you.All day long the floating clouds drift by, and still the wanderer has notarrived! For three nights running I have repeatedly dreamed of you. Suchaffectionate concern on your part shows your feelings for me! Each time yousaid goodbye you seemed so uneasy. `It isn’t easy to come’, you would saybitterly; `The waters are so rough. I am afriad the boat will capsize!’ Goingout of my door you scratched your white head as if your whole life’s ambitionhad been frustrated.The Capital is full of new officials, yet a man like this is so wretched!Who is going to tell me that the `net is wide’ when this ageing manremains in difficulties?
Imperishable renown is cold comfort when you can onlyenjoy it in the tomb!
Dreaming of Li Po (Sognando Li Po), by the italian poet Claudio Damiani is a collection in which the poet, as a new Tu Fu, sings the life of the great Chinese poet, talks with him and, sometimes, identifies with him and with other Chinese poets. It’s with the Farewell between the Li Po and Tu Fu that Claudio Damiani begins his original “virtual” journey:
A un certo punto, giunti su un’altura
dove c’erano quattro baracche
scesero dal carro. Cadeva ancora la neve
dal cielo, e dai rami di un grosso pino
sopra le loro teste.
Il carrettiere slegò i cavalli. I due poeti e il seguito
presero stanza nella locanda affumicata.
Tutta la notte Li Po e Tu Fu alzarono le coppe;
gli ufficiali del seguito s’erano presto
ma loro ancora amabilmente conversavano.
Tu Fu parlò della sua casa natale,
dell’infanzia felice nella natura, dei giochi
Li Po parlò della capitale,
di feste e danze, dei giorni fugaci della giovinezza.
Ed ecco si fece bianca la finestra dell’alba,
una luce scialba, un biancore irreale penetrò
Parlarono ancora dei loro morti,
parenti e amici che avevano dovuto abbandonare.
Ad un tratto Li Po si alzò,
Tu Fu stette ancora seduto per un po’, poi anche lui
stettero in piedi per molto tempo in silenzio,
mentre tutti dormivano, nel silenzio della locanda
La neve fuori aveva smesso di cadere
e il vento si era quietato.
Li Po prese la bisaccia e s’incamminò
sulla strada bianca.
(Claudio Damiani : Sognando Li Po)
At a certain point, upon reaching a hill
where there were four cabins
they got off the wagon. Snow was still falling
from the sky, and from the branches of a large pine
over their heads.
The carter untied the horses.
The two poets and those accompanying them
took their places in the smoked inn.
All night Li Po and Tu Fu raised their cups;
the escorting officers were soon
but they still talked amiably.
Tu Fu spoke of his birthplace,
of his happy childhood in nature, games
Li Po spoke of the capital,
of parties and dances, of the transient days of youth.
And behold, the window of dawn turned white,
a dull light, an unreal whiteness penetrated
in the room.
They spoke again of their dead,
relatives and friends who had to leave.
Suddenly Li Po stood up,
Tu Fu sat still for a while, then he too
they stood for a long time in silence,
while everyone slept, in the silence of the inn
The snow outside had stopped falling
and the wind had died down.
Li Po took the saddlebag and set off
on the white road. (Translation by Carlo Marino)
Claudio Damiani was born in San Giovanni Rotondo in the province of Foggia, Southern Italy, in 1957, though at an early age he moved to Rome, where he still lives. In the first half of the ’80s he was among the founders of the magazine Braci. His first volume of poetry, Fraturno (1987), and the following, La mia casa (1994), have been collected in La miniera (Fazi, 1997, the title taken from the new section that closes the book. Other volumes of poetry are Eroi (Fazi, 2000), Attorno al fuoco (Avagliano, 2006), Sognando Li Po (Marietti, 2008), Poesie (Fazi, 2010) and Il fico sulla fortezza (Fazi, 2012).
A passionate scholar of poetry, he has also written for the theatre.
Characteristic of Damiani is the reference to a defined and circumscribed place in which alone his poems seem to find the intimacy and emotional stability necessary to their existence. His voice as a poet is internal and literally poetic, protected like an surprizing and precious gift. Between the poet and the presences in his verses, not unintentionally anthropomorphic figures, a type of loving dialogue develops, without hierarchy, which only friendship and mutual solicitude can justify and guarantee. This leads to an extreme simplification of expression, distancing the poetical speech from any kind of intellectual or reflective complexity, as well as from literary references. The result is a simple language, playing on innocence and surprise, highlighting the authenticity of the few, but vital, feelings and situations.
The Poems by Claudio Damiani arise from a sweet obsession, from a dialogue, from a kind of madness. Claudio Damiani is one of the most important Italian poets and in Dreaming of Li Po he makes a risky and strong gesture. And at the same time he performs the high and humble gesture of great poetry: placing his own voice at the disposal of other voices, of other men. Fascinated since he was a boy by the Chinese poetry he encountered in the translation by the Sinologist Martin Benedikter. The Roman poet has felt the strength of that literature so remote and yet in keeping with certain classics of Ancient Rome grow in recent decades.
Thus his pages, which capture the minimal and vital elements of existence in astonished and profound texts, come to us as a special fruit of a natural dialogue between eras and men, between ancient and contemporary hearts. Between East and West.
The dialogue with a Chinese Poet is a true author’s proof, in the most enduring sense of the term, less linked to the individualistic emphasis of the signature and rich instead of the personal discovery of the dimensions of time. The poet said he loved Chinese poetry as something that pushed him beyond his time, into an ancient future that appeared him like a dream, that brought him the giants of Chinese poetry (Po chu-i, Li Po, Tu Fu ). He saw in Chinese poetry a poem of the earth, perfectly objective, without the need for any metaphor. Great poetry of the earth, of its calm, of its glory.
Amazement is what Damiani approaches things with, everything has a form, if it did not have a form it would not reach being, and as a form it is beautiful and alive and therefore it is the poet’s task to look around and stop the continuous disintegration that the indifference of technological civilization is causing.
The italian poet’s verses helped by the chinese poems example make us feel love and indignation, letting out that quiet impatience that helps us to regain the confidence and orientation of a serene creative evolution, which we have lost in this wicked time .
The backbone of this work is making universal, in the literal sense of the term, those that are the cornerstones of the human journey in any part of the world it takes place: family and public relations, the relationship with nature, the wisdom transmitted by forefathers, love for life in any form: material, natural, animal, human. A journey that Damiani follows with great naturalness, without linguistic artifices, following in the footsteps of the classical literary tradition that is the basis of his training and from which he nourishes his verses.
这个展览的举办要归功于几个世纪以来马斯特里赫特大学与耶稣会的特殊关系。耶稣会是由依纳爵·罗耀拉(1491 – 1556)及其同伴于1540年创立。根据会规，耶稣会传教团是一个正义与和解的传教团，采取连队化组织结构，获得了罗马教廷教宗保禄三世的认可，会士效忠教宗和绝对服从。
The Jesuits between East and West
There’s a special, on line, virtual book arts exhibition: The Jesuits between East and West, between China and Europe at the Maastricht University, in the Netherlands. The Netherlands is a country primarily located in Western Europe and partly in the Caribbean, forming the largest constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. In Europe, it consists of 12 provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with those countries and the United Kingdom. In the Caribbean, it consists of three special municipalities: the islands of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba.
This exhibition has been made possible thanks to the specific relationship with the Society of Jesus, or the Jesuits, Maastricht University has had during centuries.
The Society of Jesus was founded in 1540 by Ignatius of Loyola (1491–1556) and his companions. The mission of the Jesuits, according to their rule, is a mission of justice and reconciliation. The institution of the Company of Jesus was endorsed in Rome by Pope Paul III and the Jesuits put themselves at the disposition of the pope, assuring him unconditional obedience.
In 1575, this Catholic religious order selected Maastricht to establish its first Jesuit college in the Netherlands.
In 1976, after the departure of the Jesuits from Maastricht, the new university located its medical faculty on the premises of the city’s former Jesuit college. The university also acquired a wonderful library from the Jesuits, famous as the Jesuit Collection, which holds thousands of valuable books of travel and other precious works.
This exhibition focuses on the often magnificently illustrated books about China from Maastricht University’s Jesuit Collection. Driven by missionary zeal, many Jesuits embarked on a perilous journey to the East. Those who did make it to China, arriving there as of 1582, encountered a highly developed culture.
Jesuits were surprised when they saw that the Chinese knew book printing already, while there was also an extensive network of schools in China. Around 1600, over 150 million people were living in China, while Europe had a population of some 75 million. At the time, the Chinese empire was led by the Ming dynasty, which depended on a bureaucracy of officials competent in the Confucianist classics. The empire had stable autocratic regime. The Jesuits were dependent on Chinese bureaucracy to enter the country and they could not simply leave again. This implied that they had to adapt to all sorts of local circumstances. Between 1582 and 1773, when the pope would formally abolish the Jesuit order, some 400 foreign Jesuits arrived in China. One of them came from Maastricht: François de Rougemont (1624-1676), who later on would actually contribute to spreading the views of Confucius in Europe. Usually there were not more than 40 Jesuits active in China at one time, even though at one point there were as many as 80 Jesuits. By 1700 they had managed to convert some 200,000 Chinese.
The exhibition displays many important travel books: of particular importance a volume comprising letters by the Italian Jesuit Alessandro Valignano (1539-1606) from Japan and China; several publications by the Jesuit Nicolas Trigault (1577-1628) from the town of Douai (then in the Spanish Netherlands). He was the first Jesuit who published on China. The famous book De Christiana expeditione apud Sinas suscepta ab Societate Jesu (1615), dedicated to Pope Paul V, was based on a manuscript by the Italian Jesuit Matteo Ricci (1552-1610). Another highlight of the Maastricht University’s Jesuit Collection is the well-known and nicely illustrated China Illustrata, a comprehensive survey written by the German Jesuit Athanasius Kircher (1602-1680).
Visiting this virtual exhibition it is possible to explore many fascinating stories about ‘other’ cultures – stories which in fact reveal a lot about their author’s perspective and cultural background as well.
The role of the Jesuits as mediators between East and West is a theme which fits well with Maastricht University’s interdisciplinary Global Studies programme. From the beginning, the Jesuits were known for the importance they attached not only to spirituality, but also to education. Many of them were – and are – themselves critical intellectuals with a scholarly approach, an open attitude towards cultural contact and a global, international perspective.
圣马力诺的城镇保留了其独特的中世纪外观，房屋由当地的石头建造。城镇内清晰可见的三个同心墙的痕迹标志着几个世纪以来城市中心的演变。第一面墙建于13 和 14 世纪，位于教区教堂周围的上部；紧接着是一面延伸到塞斯塔的墙，建于14-15世纪。第三面墙建于16世纪，一直延伸到山脊的尽头。在圣弗朗切斯科（旧时的城市入口）的入口是同名教堂（建于1361年，在17-18世纪进行改造），旁边设有一间美术馆。
居民生活的中心以自由广场和政府宫（建于19世纪末，保留14世纪的形式）为代表。附近的新古典主义风格的圣马力诺大教堂（1836 年），建在古老的教区教堂所在地。具有建筑意义的三座塔楼（堡垒或”笔尖”）竖立在泰塔诺山顶的三座山峰上：罗卡或瓜伊塔（11世纪）；位于山顶的切斯塔（13世纪）以及蒙塔莱（13世纪）。在镇子上最古老的地区，坐落着瓦卢尼宫（15-18世纪），政府档案馆，图书馆和博物馆。另一方面，圣马力诺一直是许多意大利人的避税天堂。2015年，由意大利司法机构牵头协调进行的一项大规模调查披露了多起逃税案件。案件嫌疑人包括银行家和黑手党。其中在2015年，一份有近2.6万名意大利人的详细资料的IT 名单清晰表明这些人从2006年至2014年不断向圣马力诺的银行账户转账，总金额高达220亿欧元。其中大部分可能为了逃税和洗钱，这一事件引起了意大利司法部门的关注。检察院随后调查了意大利和圣马力诺共和国之间的银行业务，发现在26953名意大利公民中（其中涉及23350名个人和2250家公司），发现20675起涉嫌逃税的案件，这还不包括最严重的罪行——洗钱。实际上，在四分之三以上的案件中，那些将钱带到圣马力诺的人并没有向意大利税务机关申报。由于意大利税务警察总指挥部提供了一个软件，因此能够得到调查记录，该软件将意大利和圣马力诺银行获得的数据与税务当局已经掌握的数据进行核对，从而建立了一个数据库，记录每年的资金流动情况。
The first visit of the Captains regent of San Marino Republic , who are both heads of state and heads of government, H.E. Gian Franco Terenzi and H.E. Rossano Zafferani, in China took place from February 24 to March 1, 1988 at the invitation of the President of the People’s Republic of China, Li Xiannian. It was the first visit to China and the first to an Asian country and marked a particularly important stage in the bilateral relationship between the two states. The Captains Regent, during their stay in China, were welcomed with great affection and friendship by the highest officials of the Chinese cities visited. The sumptuous welcoming ceremonies offered by the government were once again significant of the desire to consider San Marino on a par with any great nation. During his speech, President Li Xiannian said: “a consolidated friendship between countries does not differentiate between large and small peoples as it is equality between countries regardless of territorial or economic dimension”.
San Marino is the oldest Republic of Europe, completely surrounded by Italian territory, between Romagna and the Marche. With 60 square kilometers, it’s also the smallest republic. Until the independence of Nauru (1968), it was the smallest republic in the world. San Marino is also known for its beautiful stamps and coins.
The small state is located on the last foothills of the Apennines (an Italian mountain range consisting of parallel smaller chains extending c. 1,200 km (750 mi) along the length of the peninsula), and includes the limestone ridge of Mount Titano (739 m) and the surrounding hills.
In 2008 Mount Titano and the historic centre of San Marino were designated a UNESCO World Heritage site.
The territory is crossed by streams, tributary of the Marecchia river and the climate is temperate continental. The population is made up largely (85%) of San Marino citizens and 10% of Italians. The demographic increase (annual growth rate of 1.1% in 2009) is modest but constant. About 17,000 San Marino residents live outside the borders of the state, mostly in the neighboring Italian regions, but also in France, Belgium and the United States. The prevalent religion (89%) is Catholic. The capital (4465 inhab. In 2017) is a very popular tourist destination.
The sector that contributes the most (53.4%) to the formation of GDP is the tertiary sector, represented mainly by tourism and induced activities, including notable philatelic and numismatic productions. Financial activities are also of some importance, thanks to a favorable tax legislation. The territory is mainly cultivated with wheat, corn and vines. The industrial activities, founded on small companies, concern the textile, cement, paper, rubber and leather sectors. Handicraft is also important (particularly ceramics).
According to tradition, a Christian stonecutter, Marino lived on Monte Titano in the 4th century, during the time of the chinese Eastern Jin dynasty
(317–420). He gathered fellow believers and formed a congregation. This community, having cleared the mountain, first built a town, then a parish church, then a castle, and eventually, in the 11th century, equipped itself against the invaders. It maintained its independence protected by good allies and by the Pope. Internationally recognized independent in 1815, in 1862 it was also recognized by the newborn Italian state, with which it entered into a customs union to which the monetary union was added in 1939. The customs union with all EU countries dates back to 1993, the state entered into the euro area in 2002.
The order of San Marino is based on the ancient statutes (dating back to the Middle Ages) and their subsequent updates. Heads of state and executive are two regent captains, elected for six months by the Great and General Council; the regent captains preside over the Congress of State, which has the executive power, responsible to the Great and General Council. The latter, holder of legislative power, is made up of 60 members, elected for five years by universal suffrage.
The town retains its characteristic medieval appearance, with houses built with local stone . Traces of three concentric walls are visible, marking the evolution of the center over the centuries. The first wall (13th and 14th century, upper part around the parish church) was followed by the one (14th-15th century) extended up to the tower called Cesta. 16th century it is the third wall, up to the end of the mountain ridge. At the gate of San Francesco (ancient entrance to the city) is the church of the same name (1361, transformed in the 17th-18th century), with an adjacent picture gallery.
The center of civil life is represented by the Piazza della Libertà, with the Government Palace (late 19th century, in fourteenth-century form). Neoclassical is the nearby basilica of San Marino (1836), built on the site of the ancient parish church. Of architectural interest, the three towers (fortresses or ‘pens’), erected on the three peaks of the crest of Mount Titano: Rocca or Guaita (11th century); Cesta (13th century), on the highest peak of the mountain; Montale (13th century). In the oldest part of the town, Palazzo Valloni (15th-18th century), with government archive, library and museum.
San Marino has been a tax haven for many italians.
A maxi-investigation coordinated by italian judiciary made San Marino tremble in 2015: in recent years over 22 billion have been exported to San Marino, more than 20 thousand cases of evasion hypothesized. Bankers and people linked to organized crime are among the suspects.
An IT list with the details of almost 26 thousand Italians who from 2006 to 2014 made transfers to San Marino accounts for a total value of 22 billion, many of which could be the result of evasion and money laundering was under the attention of the judiciary. The Public Prosecutor’s Office investigated the banking movements registered between Italy and the San Marino Republic. Out of 26,953 Italian citizens ended up under the magnifying glass of the judiciary (of which 23,350 individuals and 2,250 companies), there were 20,675 cases of alleged tax evasion, without counting the most serious offenses: from money laundering to bankruptcy. In practice, in more than three out of four cases, those who brought the money to San Marino did not declare it to the Italian tax authorities. A record investigation made possible thanks to a software provided by the general command of the Italian Tax Police, which through the crossing of the data acquired by the Italian and San Marino banks with those already in the possession of the tax authorities, made it possible to build a database with the movements of money year by year.
Bankers, industrialists, entrepreneurs were in the investigation. Many of the subjects with current accounts open in San Marino came from Emilia-Romagna (15,044) and Marche (4,089), but there is no shortage of clients from Lazio (1,510), Lombardy (1,330) and Veneto (1,112). In the middle there are also figureheads and fixers with disturbing ties to mafia organizations.
冯·德·莱恩主席由欧洲议会选举产生并由国家领导人任命。 气候，数字技术和地缘政治的变化对欧洲人的生活产生了深远的影响。 从基层政治到全球权力结构，这些变革正在各个层面发生。冯·德·莱恩在其国情咨文中多次使用“ 建设（build）”和“ 保护（protect）”这两个动词来强调整个世界正在经历的历史性转折点，即保护公民的健康和建设更加可持续发展的未来已成为当务之急。 国情咨文发表于西欧国家比利时首都布鲁塞尔，欧盟总部也设在这里。咨文中宣布了许多新计划，其中一些计划让人期待已久但其重要性不言而喻。例如将2030年的温室气体减排目标从40％提高到55％。 冯·德·莱恩表示，这对于欧洲是一个雄心勃勃、可实现且健康的目标。此外，咨文还提出在欧洲建立合理的最低工资的监管框架，针对网络巨头进行税收等。
冯·德莱恩还谈到了建立新“欧洲包豪斯”的计划，该项目以上世纪初德国著名的艺术学校命名，旨在汇集“建筑师、艺术家、学生、工程师和设计师”共同考量欧洲大陆的建设，着眼于可持续发展。在筹备中的项目中，还有一家新的欧洲生物医学领域高级研究机构，名为“ European Barda”，该名称引用了同性质的美国机构的名称（生物医学高级研究与开发局）。
冯·德莱恩（Von der Leyen）的咨文有助于更好地定义欧洲复苏计划将采取的形式。37％的资金将直接用于所谓的“绿色交易”的目标，而20％的资金将用于数字经济。主席含蓄地表示：“现在欧洲必须在数字化方面起带头作用，否则它将不得不遵循为我们设定标准的其他国家所设定的道路。”这一表述意味着欧洲将直接与美国和中国展开竞争。 未来四年，欧洲委员会的主要目标之一是唤醒健康的欧洲爱国主义，并将欧盟置于全球地缘政治棋盘的中心。欧盟的战略已经认识到新冠肺炎大流行可能造成的全球安全、社会经济和政治风险，并对欧盟主要国际伙伴准备利用危机来解开由多边组织支持的基于规则的世界秩序这一事实感到担忧。
The strategy of the European Union at
the time of COVID19
The global outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic is a game changer in the international environment and a catalyst of change in the global order. The strategy of the European Union with a more assertive EU foreign policy will defend Europe’s interests, its values and the multilateral world order.
The lack of global leadership and coordinated international response in the initial phases of the COVID-19 crisis, as well as tendencies to opt for isolationist solutions, the withholding of critical information, the rise of state-sponsored disinformation campaigns and the promotion of false narratives which create distrust and undermine international cooperation have all been factors which have impacted the international scenario.
The European Union still has to position itself in the new world order after COVID-19 in which, alongside the EU, the US, China and Russia play a leading role.
The President is the head of the European Commission, the executive branch of the European Union in charge for five years, and at the moment is the germanpolitician Ursula von derLeyen.
According to the Treaties, the President decides on the organisation of the Commission and allocates portfolios to individual Commissioners. The President also sets the Commission’s policy agenda.
The President represents the Commission in European Council meetings, G7 and G20 summits, summits with non-EU countries.
President von derLeyen was appointed by national leaders and elected by the European Parliament. Changes in climate, digital technologies and geopolitics are having a profound effect on the lives of Europeans. These transformations are taking place at all levels, from grassroots politics to global power structures.
The verbs “build” and “protect” have been used several times by the President of the European Commission Ursula von der Leyen in her State of the Union Address to underline the historical turning point that the whole world is going through, where the protection of citizens’ health and the construction of a more sustainable future have become top priorities. The Speech was delivered in Brussels, the capital of Belgium a country in the Western part of Europe, where there are the European Union Headquarters.
There are many new initiatives announced, some of which have been long awaited but no less important. Such as raising the greenhouse gas emissions reduction target for 2030 from 40% to 55%. An ambitious, achievable and healthy target for Europe, according to von der Leyen. Furthermore, the creation of a regulatory framework for a fair minimum wage in Europe, up to the establishment of a tax to target the giants of the web.
Von der Leyen also spoke of the creation of a new “European Bauhaus”, named after the famous German art school of the beginning of the last century, which brings together “architects, artists, students, engineers and designers” to rethink construction. of the continent with an eye to the sustainability. And among the projects in the pipeline there is also a new European agency for advanced research in the biomedical field, called the “European Barda” with reference to the US agency of the same name (Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority).
Von der Leyen’s speech served to better define the form that the European recovery plan will take. 37% of the funds will be spent directly on the objectives of the so called“Green deal”, while 20% will go digital economy. “Now Europe must lead the way in digital, or it will have to follow the path set by others who are setting the standards for us,” said the president implicitly placing the EU in direct competition with the United States and China. Awakening a healthy European patriotism and placing the European Union at the center of the global geopolitical chessboard is among the main objectives of European Commission in the next four years.
The Strategy of the European Union recognizes the global security, socio-economic and political risks that could be caused by the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic,and is worried about the fact that the EU’s main international counterparts were prepared to use the crisis to unravel the rules-based world order underpinned by multilateral organisations.
The multilateral rules-based world order is vital for global peace, the rule of law and democracy and a geopolitical EU must play a firmer role in defending it and seek ways to de-escalate tensions between powers.
Only a more united EU, backed up by sufficient and credible military capacities, will be able to conduct a strong foreign policy and the end of the unanimity rule on foreign policy would help the EU to conduct a foreign policy that is more effective and more proactive;
The European Union highlighted the important role of the armed forces during the COVID-19 pandemic and believes that a more in-depth joint operation and coordination of member states’ armed forces within existing frameworks – such as the European Medical Command – or within new frameworks – such as military hospital trains – could lead to greater efficiency and contribute to the EU’s preparedness to fight pandemics. There’s the need to review the EU’s security and defence strategies to develop strategic autonomy, to become better prepared and more resilient to the new and hybrid threats and technologies that have made the nature of warfare less conventional and challenge the traditional role of the military.
The expansion and modernisation of EU communication strategies so that EU action is sufficiently visible both within and beyond the EU and the European External Action Service (EEAS) must further strengthen its capacities to counter disinformation.
European Union biggest global consumer market of almost 500 million people gives the EU leverage on the world stage, and a geopolitical Commission should use this leverage when other countries are not prepared to comply with the rule of law or international treaties.
A referendum to cut the Cost of Politics in Italy
A nationwide referendum was held in Italy on Sunday and Monday alongside local elections taking place in seven regions – Veneto, Campania, Tuscany, Liguria, Marche, Puglia and Valle d’Aosta. A referendum is a vote in which all the people in a country or an area are asked to give their opinion about or decide an important political or social question.
The referendum held in Italy was on whether to approve a constitutional law that amends the Italian Constitution to reduce the number of MPs in parliament, from 630 to 400 in the Chamber of Deputies and from 315 to 200 in the Senate.
The referendum was initially scheduled to be held on 29 March but had to be postponed because of the COVID-19 pandemic. “Yes vote” won with almost 70% of the vote cast.
The referendum on cutting the number of MPs for which Italians went to the polls on Sunday 20 September and Monday 21 September 2020 was of a constitutional type as it concerned the modification of some articles of the Constitution (precisely articles 56, 57 and 59).
This referendum was a so called “confirmatory referendum” because with the victory of “Yes vote”, the constitutional revision law approved on 8 October 2019 is confirmed.
Rules, procedures and methods of conducting the constitutional referendum are provided for in Article 138 of the Italian Constitution, which defines its subject and quorum. Art. 138 of the Italian Constitution states:
“Laws amending the Constitution and other constitutional laws shall be adopted by each House after two successive debates at intervals of not less than three months, and shall be approved by an absolute majority of the members of each House in the second voting.
Said laws are submitted to a popular referendum when, within three months of their publication, such request is made by one-fifth of the members of a House or five hundred thousand voters or five Regional Councils. The law submitted to referendum shall not be promulgated if not approved by a majority of valid votes. A referendum shall not be held if the law has been approved in the second voting by each of the Houses by a majority of two-thirds of the members.”
The constitutional law is confirmed if the “yes vote” exceeds the “no vote” even by one vote. In fact, there is no specific quorum for the confirmatory referendum.
Supporters of the “yes vote” rested on the following arguments:
Cutting the number of Mps means the reduction of the costs of the politics, with a saving of over 80 million euros per year; They hope for a greater efficiency in the functioning of the parliament, due to the smaller number of parliamentarians.
Supporters of “no vote” believed that:
the benefits invoked on reducing the costs of the policy would be negligible, affecting a few euros per year for each Italian;
improving the efficiency of parliament would not be an automatism linked to the smaller number of parliamentarians, but rather a consequence of the mechanisms of formation of the legislative process that the reform instead leaves intact;
on the other hand, reducing the number of parliamentarians would create serious dangers regarding the representativeness of the people in parliament. The drastic reduction in the number of senators in fact, would determine the lack of representatives from smaller territories. Italy would have one deputy for every 151,000 inhabitants and a senator for every 302,000 inhabitants (the original text of the Constitution provided for one deputy for every 80,000 inhabitants and one senator for every 200,000), with the lowest number of parliamentarians in all the major countries of Europe. The role of the Parliament would therefore be generally debased and weakened.
Most of Italy’s political parties have come out in favour of a yes vote.
But the 5-Star Movement, the biggest party supporting Premier Giuseppe Conte’s government, has pushed hardest for this reform.
The referendum on cutting the number of Members of parliament (230 in the House and 115 in the Senate) of 20 and 21 September reopened the debate on the costs of politics in Italy. By comparing Italian expenditure with that of more similar European countries, it is possible to circumscribe anomalies that no longer have any justification. In Italy, with 630 deputies, the Chamber only costs 989 million Euros, while in the UK 650 members of the House of Commons for 468 million Euros.By cutting the number of parliamentarians, with the amendment of the Constitution, costs will be reduced, and a bit of democratic representation will be sacrificed. But this is the will of the italian people.
在中国明朝万历皇帝（1572-1620年）统治期间，教宗庇护四世的侄子马克·西蒂奇·冯·奥赫内姆斯· 阿尔特普思（Mark Sittich von Hohenems Altemps, 1533-1595年）在意大利决定开始修建蒙德拉贡别墅。
阿尔特普思（Altemps）是一名德国籍枢机，其叔叔乔凡尼·安杰洛·美第奇（Giovanni Angelo Medici）于1559年12月26日成为教宗。
这间贵族别墅位于蒙特波齐奥卡托内（阿尔班山）。它在罗马东南约20公里（12英里）的海拔416m的山丘上，此地因拥有众多城堡和别墅而被称为罗马城堡（castelli romani）。教宗额我略十三世（1502年1月7日至1585年4月10日），因其家族纹章为龙，因此将别墅称为“蒙德拉贡”（Mondragone），长期将别墅用作夏季住所，也因此成为阿尔德普斯枢机的贵宾。别墅有许多大房间，其中一些装饰精美。在所有的房间中，瑞士厅（Sala degli Svizzeri）最为雄伟。
额我略历的最初目的是修改复活节的日期。1582年，当教宗额我略十三世提出额我略历时，欧洲遵循儒略历（Julian calendar），该历法最早由公元前46年（汉代时期）的尤利乌斯·凯撒（Julius Caesar）实施。儒略历错误地将太阳年的时间缩短了11分钟，因此导致历法与季节不同步。这使教宗额我略十三世很担忧，因为这意味着以往在3月21日庆祝的复活节将距每年春分越来越远。
蒙德拉贡别墅在鲍格才（包括希皮奥内·鲍格才Scipione Borghese枢机主教和教宗保禄五世Pope Paul V 1552-1621）家族时期达到巅峰，他们在那里展出的部分艺术品和古董藏品（包括0.95 m高的大理石雕塑《安提诺乌斯 》，现在收藏于巴黎卢浮宫博物馆中）的名字就来源于蒙德拉贡别墅。80,000立方米的纪念建筑群被18公顷的公园环绕，公园内有柏树和百年历史的霍尔姆橡树，丰富的植物装饰了别墅的外围，形成了一条充满暗示性的大道。
建筑师瓦桑齐奥（Vasanzio，意大利名为Jan van Santen，1550–1621）设计的内院、壮丽的意式花园以及雄伟而典雅的门廊异常迷人。此外还有水域剧院和令人陶醉的空中秘密花园。
1981年，它被耶稣会卖给了罗马第二大学，至今仍为大学所有。1912年，蒙德拉贡别墅的耶稣会士向波兰革命家、古文学家和藏书家威尔弗雷德·迈克尔·伏尼契（Wilfred Michael Voynich）出售了著名的伏尼契手稿，这是一个用未知书写系统手写的插图手抄本。
Villa Mondragone: A “dragon in the name”
between Italy and China
During the reign of the Wanli Emperor (1572–1620) of the Chinese Ming Dinasty, in Italy the Pope Pius IV’s nephew Mark Sittich von Hohenems Altemps ( 1533–1595) decided to start the building of Villa Mondragone.
Altemps was a German Roman Catholic bishop and cardinal, whose uncle Giovanni Angelo Medici became Pope on 26 December 1559.
The cardinal commissioned the italian architect Martino Longhi (1534–1591) the design for the Villa Mondragone on the site of the remains of a Roman villa of the ancient Roman family of the Quinctilii, a patrician family in Rome, dating from the earliest period of Roman history, more or less the time of Han Dynasty (206 BC-220 AD).
Afterwards the Villa took the name of “Mondragone”, with reference to the winged dragon, heraldic symbol of the Boncompagni (family of Pope Gregory XIII, great friend and protector of the Altemps), widely used as a decorative element.
This patrician villa is in the territory of Monte Porzio Catone (Alban Hills).It lies on a hill 416m above sea-level, in an area called, from its many castles and villas, Castelli Romani about 20 km (12 mi) southeast of Rome.
Pope Gregory XIII, (7 January 1502 – 10 April 1585 ) whose heraldic dragon led to calling the villa “Mondragone”, used the villa regularly as a summer residence, as guest of Cardinal Altemps.The Villa has many large rooms, some of which are richly decorated. Among all, the majestic Sala degli Svizzeri stands out,
the setting for a historical event of undisputed importance in the History of Humanity: the Reform of the Julian Calendar commissioned by Pope Gregory XIII, who from here promulgated, in February 1582, the famous document in latin language Inter gravissimas (“In the gravest concern”) which initiated the reform of the calendar now in use and known as the Gregorian Calendar.
The original goal of the Gregorian calendar was to change the date of Easter. In 1582, when Pope Gregory XIII introduced his Gregorian calendar, Europe adhered to the Julian calendar, first implemented by Julius Caesar in 46 B.C. (Han Dinasty). The Julian Calendar system miscalculated the length of the solar year by 11 minutes, the calendar had since fallen out of sync with the seasons. This concerned Gregory because it meant that Easter, traditionally observed on March 21, fell further away from the spring equinox with each passing year.
In 1585 Gregory XIII reserved the evangelization of China and Japan to the members of the Society of Jesus, the Jesuits.
On March 23 of that year, a few weeks before he died, he had the satisfaction of receiving a Japanese delegation made up of young Christians, princes and aristocrats from the kingdoms of southern Japan, probably the first ever to come to Europe, led by the missionary Alessandro Valignano (Tenshō Embassy).
Villa Mondragone was at its maximum splendour during the epoch of the Borghese family (including Cardinal Scipione Borghese and Pope Paul V 1552-1621 ), who exhibited parts of their art and antiquities collections there (including the so called Antinous Mondragone a 0.95 m high marble, today in Louvre Museum, Paris, which derives its name from the villa).
The 80,000 cubic meters of the monumental complex are surrounded by 18 hectares of park with cypresses and centuries-old holm oaks, which form suggestive avenues which together with the rich flora contribute to decorating the Villa’s outdoor spaces.
The internal courtyard, the splendid Italian garden, the majestic and elegant portico by the architect Vasanzio italian name of Jan van Santen (Utrecht, 1550 – Roma, 1621) are of considerable charm; the theater of the Waters and the enchanting Hanging Secret Garden.
Among the works of astronomy by Matteo Ricci (Lì Mădòu) there’s the Chinese version of the Roman calendar reformed by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582, a reform to which the mathematician Cristoforo Clavio had contributed, when Ricci was already in the east.
It will be published by the Jesuits of China only after Lì Mădòu’s death. The Christian calendar was ” adapted ” by Ricci in the 24 periods of about 15 days of the Chinese calendar year, “so that Christians can know for themselves all the movable and fixed holidays of the year, and also their moons and times of the year”.
Other popes passed long periods in Villa Mondragone.In 1620, the owners of the villa donated the Mondragone library to the Vatican Library. Starting from 1626, Popes decided to leave Villa Mondragone in favour of the Papal residence of Castel gandolfo.
In 1865 the Jesuits turned the Villa into a college, the Nobile Collegio Mondragone, for young aristocrats, which operated until 1953. During the Second World War the college was also used as a shelter for evacuees.
In 1981 it was sold by the Order of the Jesuits to the second University of Rome Tor Vergata, where as of modern times, the Villa remains a peripheral seat of the University.
In 1912 the Jesuits at the Villa Mondragone sold to the Polish revolutionary, antiquarian and bibliophile Wilfred Michael Voynich the famous Voynich manuscript, an illustrated codex hand-written in an unknown writing system.
在意大利还有很多有趣的修道院或者教堂：有些已经废弃却充满怀旧气息的神秘气息；有些现在还在使用中。你大可以前去游览，在那儿吃中饭，甚至过夜。其中有一座特里苏尔蒂修道院（英语：Trisulti Charterhouse,意大利语：Certosa di Trisulti），位于科莱帕尔多镇的郊区，接近意大利中部的弗罗西诺内市（拉齐奥大区），位于罗马东南方向50英里。它处于Rotonaria山的山坡上，这座山的制高点——Monti Ernici峰，海拔825米。大多数的修道院建筑群修建的年代和中国的宋朝时期相当（公元960-1290年）。第一座修道院建于公元996年，其遗址离今天所见的建筑相去不远。这座著名而庄严的加尔都西会修道院深藏于森林中，于公元1204年由教宗英诺森三世修建。英诺森三世是欧洲中世纪时期的最具影响力的教宗（在位时间大致和元世祖可汗忽必烈相当，也就是公元1215-1294年间）。他在帝国王公和主教们间树立了自己的权威和影响力。
由朱塞佩·科夫勒精工细雕的大门两侧安放有有两位殉道者的水晶棺。两行唱诗班坐席：分别建于1564和1688年，全部由加尔都西会会士修建。拱形的天花板上绘有壁画天堂之光（Glory of Paradise，1683)，由意大利画家朱塞佩·卡奇创作。教堂中央花饰描绘的是宝座上的圣母和她的孩子们——圣巴尔多禄茂和圣布鲁诺，由文森佐·曼妮蒂创作。墙上描绘的是圣经故事中的椭圆圣画像和加尔都西会会士们，由19世纪意大利画家菲利波·巴尔比创作。修道院建筑群还包括一座建于18世纪的药房，共两层楼；装饰有立体感强烈的二维错觉画和现代家具。和药房正对的花园曾经是一个植物园。修道士们曾对2500种草药有过研究，甚至有着自己的“秘密配方”。药房的房间內有菲利波·巴尔比（1806年出生于意大利南部那不勒斯的画家。）创作的主题壁画。特里苏尔蒂修道院建筑群在1873年成为国家博物馆。2018年，前白宫首席政策顾问史蒂夫·班农和意大利文化部签订协议，宣布将租下特里苏尔蒂修道用于建立一所学院，成为这所历史悠久的修道院的承租人。“人类尊严研究所”会把这座具有800多年历史的修道院变成班农和他在欧洲的合作伙伴本杰明·哈恩维尔共同创办的民粹主义学院。但是如果他没有支付租金，意大利政府有权撤销这一租赁协议。但是，最近，意大利中部的拉齐奥大区行政法院裁定班农有权在修道院建立民粹主义学院。或许，在这所学院正式启动之前，一切都还没有定数。
During the Song Dynasty (960–1279) (Chinese: 宋朝; pinyin: Sòng cháo; 960–1279), in Europe and in Italy, monasteries (siyuan 寺院) reached a level of sophistication with further development in architecture and had a profound influence upon the budding movements of monks within the catholic Church.
The temple or monastery culture had deep influence in every aspect of italian life and, furthermore, they played a significant role in the evolution of the use of herbal medicine and inspired substantial changes in the medical application of herbs.
Famous monasteries are often built in stunning isolated settings, on mountaintops or perched on rocky promontories not incorporated into the scene of a city. Monks could escape religious persecution in the wilderness and could live a safe life from the struggles that infested the Italian peninsula and devote themselves to meditation and good works.
In Italy there are many interesting monasteries and abbeys that can be visited, ranging from evocative ruins to monasteries still in use today where it is possible to take a tour, have lunch, or sometimes even spend the night.
One monastery that is worth a visit is Trisulti Charterhouse (Italian: Certosa di Trisulti), a sacred site and temple complex, in the outskirts of the town of Collepardo, near the city of Frosinone, Central Italy, about 50 miles south-east of Rome .
It is located on the slopes of Monte Rotonaria, a peak of the Monti Ernici, at 825 meters above the sea level. Most of the temple complex was built when in China dominated the Song Dynasty (960–1279). A first temple was founded in the site in 996 and some remains can be seen today not far from the current building. This famous and stately Carthusian monastery was founded by Pope Innocent III in 1204 in the middle of secular woods.
This Pope was the most significant pope of the European Middle Ages (the epoch of Yuán Shìzŭ, titled Khubilai Khan (1215-1294), first Yuan dynasty emperor), shaped a powerful and original doctrine of papal power expanding the authority of the pope over emperor, kings, princes, and bishops..
Innocent III, assigned the monastery of Trisulti to the Carthusians and today it is full of history, art, and architecture. The birth of the Carthusians and the figure of their founder San Bruno (the institution of the Grande Chartreuse in France, western Europe, is from 1084, Song Dynasty in China ) are part of the renewed attraction that the ideal of hermit life exercised on Western spirituality in the 11th century. Carthusians were monks who were hermitic and their way of life stressed community life. The Charterhouses present themselves as centers in which the ascetic and contemplative life is practiced in an extremely rigorous way; life stability was glorified by Saint Bruno, in contrast to the wandering and disorderly hermitism of the period. Isolation from the civil life,communism and poverty, at least on an individual level were other characteristic of the inhabitants of the charterhouse..
The name Trisulti could derive from Latin language meaning “at the three jumps”: this was the name of a castle which commanded the three passes (“jumps”) leading to Abruzzo, Rome and Ciociaria and the mountaintop location is truly unique and almost mystical as it appears to be part of the Ernici mountains itself.
The complex was enlarged and modified several times in the following centuries. The monastery is surrounded by a massive line of walls. The entrance leads to a central square where there is a guesthouse, commonly known as the “Palace of Innocent III” (including a portico, a terrace and a library of 36,000 volumes), and the church of San Bartolomeo (St. Bartholomew, one of the twelve apostles of Jesus according to the Bible: according to legends he was skinned alive and he is often depicted holding his flayed skin or the curved flensing knife with which he was skinned).
The abbey church, an art and archaeology museum, was built in 1211. The Façade of the abbey church had originally been a tall narrow Gothic-style (an architectural style that flourished in Europe at the time of Yuan dynasty in China) building, but was largely rebuilt as a Baroque one (a style of architecture that flourished in Europe from the early 17th century until the 1740s, a period of european history corresponding with part of Qing dynasty epoch of imperial China).
The new façade (1798) was designed by the italian architect Paolo Posi. The interior, like other Carthusian churches, is divided by a decorated wall (iconostasis) which sheltered the cloistered monks.
The canvases depicting St John the Baptist and St Michael Archangel are copies replacing stolen originals painted by Cavalier D’Arpino, a painter much patronized in Rome by Popes.
The finely carved door by Giuseppe Kofler is flanked by glass coffins of two martyrs.
There are two wooden choirs: dating from 1564 and 1688, they were both created by Carthusian monk masters.
The concave ceiling was frescoed with the Glory of Paradise (1683) by the italian painter Giuseppe Caci.
The main altarpiece depicts an Enthroned Madonna and Child with St Bartholemew and St Bruno by Vincenzo Manenti. On the walls are 19th century canvases depicting scenes from the bible with ovals depicting blessed and holy Carthusian monks by the italian painter Filippo Balbi.
The complex also includes an 18th-century pharmacy, on two levels; it is decorated by trompe-l’oeil frescoes and contemporary furniture. The garden facing the pharmacy was once a botanic garden and monks had a particular knowledge of about 2500 medicinal herbs of the region. They had even ‘secret recipes’.
The rooms of the pharmacy have genre-themed frescoes by Filippo Balbi, a painter born in Naples, Southern Italy, in 1806.
The Trisulti complex became a national monument in 1873 and in 2018 the former White House Chief Strategist, Steve Bannon announced plans to establish an academy in the charterhouse after a pioneering accord with the Italian Ministry for Culture to become the official Leaseholder of the historic Abbey of Trisulti . The Dignitatis Humanae Institute, is going to turn an 800-year-old abbey in Italy into an academy for populists founded by Benjamin Harnwell who is a European associate of Bannon, but he had its rights to use the former monastery revoked by the Italian government after bills were not paid.
Anyway, recently the Administrative Court of Lazio Region, Center Italy, found the Foundation of the Academy for populists and sovereignism right. Now maybe another degree of judgment is to be expected before the matter is settled before the academy is operational.
但是对债务构成进行分析来看，意大利的债务来自家庭和其他国内机构，并且相互多重担保的情况很普遍；当人们想到意大利的私人债务/GDP比例的时候，人们总会想到奥地利 (48.8%), 瑞典 (88.5%), 荷兰 (99.8%), 丹麦 (112%)。
Italy, European Union and the relations
with China at the time of Covid19
Italy was one of the founders and inspirers of the European project and of the European Economic Community created by the Treaty of Rome of 1957, but today the European Commission looks more like an oligarchic club and has sometimes brushed Italy off.
Unlike the EEC, the European Union established when the Maastricht Treaty came into force in 1993 should have led to a project similar to the United States of America with three pillars: single market, single currency and single banking system. The euro currency was not enough, its function is not even comparable to that of the dollar because the value varies between States, creating the “spread” that certifies its malfunction.
For example California will always be richer than Minnesota, and that’s why the US founding fathers have left budgetary freedom to states, with the possibility of a deficit covered by the Fed (the US central bank). The European Central Bank does not have this role and the euro, a strong currency, has anchored flexible economies to debt and GDP, free from production parameters.
These differences penalize countries such as Italy (to a lesser extent, Spain, which does not actually has a developed industry) which have always compensated their weakness with monetary flexibility, effectively containing public debt (in the Italian case covered by the fourth gold reserve worldwide) and by issuing solid government bonds.
Since 2002, however, Italy has entered the euro regime, a strong currency that has sent its trade balance into crisis and made it less competitive in exports (favoring France and Germany, its competitors). Germany has in fact accepted the euro as a substitute for the german mark and France has maintained its new colonial empire, in fact by buying the raw materials in Afrrica in colonial franc. In addition, Paris has repeatedly exceeded the notorious 3% parameter and failed to meet the budget balance (inserted by Italy in the Constitution: that has been considered a sort of fatal blow to the State through austerity neoliberalism).
The current narrative, however, wants Italy as a spendthrift, irresponsible and almost as the only one affected by the Covid-19 crisis. Although Italy’s current account is in deficit, data on its net international investment position does not suggest a critical situation. Italy is targeting its public debt, although it does not generate crises, at most speculative attacks on government bonds if downgraded by rating agencies. Despite the fact that the public debt-GDP ratio is one of the highest in Europe (and is still growing), the low level of borrowing by Italian families allows a balance to be maintained within the financial system.
However, if instead of reasoning in terms of public debt, (in Italy public debt is held by families and other domestic institutions and it is covered by multiple guarantees), one thinks about private debt in relation to GDP, normally Italy is associated with Austria (48.8%), Sweden (88.5%), Holland (99.8%), Denmark (112%).
While Italy stops, for private debt, at 40.5% of GDP. A comparison that borders the economic illiteracy, because Italy must be compared with France, Germany, the UK and at most Spain, not with countries with lower productivity than Northern Italy. Can the second European manufacture deal with Sweden, a country that has the same inhabitants as Lombardy?
The stability of financial systems is severely tested by the explosion of private debt, the most devastating financial crises (1929 and 2007) were private debt crisis and not public debt crisis. Furthermore, not least, public debt, unlike private consumption-related debt, can be financed with the instrument of debt monetization (in the European case, the ECB buys government bonds such as the Fed). The only imperfection is that it does not return to private capital.
The Netherlands – which in fact operate as a real “tax haven” within the EU, and who like to lash Italy – are a sort of bank-state in which speculators put their earnings without particular controls.
How widespread mutual mistrust is in the European Union is testified by the negotiations on the economic recovery due to COVID19 crisis. National stereotypes have been utilized again and all prejudices, all the horror, all the commonplaces that replace the political debate have emerged. The rhetoric of decision-makers, which never overcame prejudice, is utilized as a useful tool of consent and power. In particular because there are no economic but existential considerations at stake. European governments negotiate a plan which they call with optimism a recovery plan, but soon it will be a bailout, for the weaker countries and the whole Union. At the bottom, it will be disputed not so much to allocate more or less money or receive more or less aid, but to remain oneself without being forced to become like the others.
So Southern Europeans are once again seen as children of the summer, dedicated to the a joie de vivre, glamour and elegance, with unusual levels of corruption, with that touch of mafia that makes it all more folkloric. Southern countries live above their means, retire at 50 and even claim to pay the debts to others when things go wrong.
Whereas Northern Europeans are instead described as incurable scrooge-like, unable to enjoy life because they are forced to accumulate for the benefit of capitalism with which they are imbued. Maybe they don’t know empathy, but at least they take responsibility for every euro spent.
The idle cicadas against the hard-working ants. With the former enjoying the sun while the latter work in anticipation of the difficult days with the cry “winter is coming”.
The brightest tones did not come out between the champions of one or the other field, that is France and Germany, but between the respective squires, Italy and the Netherlands. The Hague leads the Nordic front, much more determined by Berlin itself to prevent any non-repayable transfer to the cicadas and the sharing of sovereign debt. At its side, in decreasing order of visibility, there are Austria, Finland, Denmark and Sweden, with the latter two out of the way because they are not members of the euro, but in solidarity with the others and reluctant to greater financial contributions to the EU as well as to the political integration.
Italy is asking more budgetary flexibility and monetary understanding, given the economic crisis which Europe is experiencing.
In this scenario, where EU development objectives are concerned, both China and the EU have benefited greatly from the multilateral trading system. Being opposed to unilateralism and protectionism, they have become the natural guardians of globalization.
The President of the European Commission von der Leyen and the President of the Council of the European Union, Charles MICHEL, held the 22nd round of EU-China Summit via videoconference on 22nd June 2020 with the Prime Minister of the People’s Republic of China Li Keqiang.
In normal circumstances, this year’s Summit would have taken place in Beijing.
Bilateral EU-China relations, regional and international issues, as well as the COVID-19 pandemic and economic recovery, were the topics on the agenda discussed during the summit.
The coronavirus pandemic and a number of important bilateral and multilateral challenges have clearly demonstrated that the EU-China partnership is crucial in trade, climate, technology and the defense of multilateralism. The two economic giants want to develop further their relations, but there is a strong need for them to rely more on rules and reciprocity, in order to achieve real conditions of equality.
About 90% of European companies believe the impact of the epidemic is temporary and they will continue to focus on the Chinese market.
若想了解18世纪的那不勒斯文化，绝对得去看看离那不勒斯20公里远的卡塞塔皇宫(Reggia di Caserta)——去感受一下建筑师路易吉·范维泰利（Luigi Vanvitelli）的杰作以及与乾隆皇帝在位同时期欧洲波旁家族（Bourbon）的查理三世（Charles III）和他在统领那不勒斯王国时的丰功伟业。
1752年1月20日，波旁家族的查理三世下令建造这座后来成为18世纪欧洲最大建筑物之一的卡塞塔皇宫(Reggia di Caserta)，查理三世雇佣了当时在罗马和那不勒斯小有名气的建筑师路易吉·范维泰利（Luigi Vanvitelli）来设计，至此，建筑师改变了意大利建筑一贯沿袭的罗马式风格，创建一种「永不过时」之风。在当时意大利尚未统一的时代，能开创一种「不过时」之风格，无论对一位国王，或者教宗、君王其意义均极其重大。
范维泰利被认为是洛可可艺术风格流行时期最具代表性的艺术家；他创作了很多能代表意大利城市和风土人情的作品，比如：与他有着千丝万缕关系的卡塞塔皇宫（Reggia di Caserta)、令人印象深刻的范维泰利水道（acquedotto di Vanvitelli)、那不勒斯的卡洛里诺广场（Il Foro Carolino）、多利亚丹格里宫（Palazzo Doria d’Angri）、圣安努奇亚塔教堂（Santissima Annunziata）；在罗马历经艰难才得以修复的天使与殉教者圣母大殿（Basilica di Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri）以及一座建在意大利中部东边安科纳市(Ancona)人工岛上的名叫“拉扎雷托安”的五边形建筑（Lazzaretto di Ancona）以及该市的耶稣大教堂（Chiesa del Gesù）。
建筑师范维泰利虽然在罗马许愿池（Fontana di Trevi）和罗马主教座堂拉特朗大殿（Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano）正立面围墙的竞争中没有中标，但也确立了自己的地位。其设计方案均获得了高度的认可，展现了自己特有的艺术风格和魅力。声名大噪后，设计师范维泰利一直活跃于意大利中部，特别是安科纳市和罗马。
应奥地利玛利亚·卡罗莱纳公主（Maria Carolina of Austria）的要求，山顶上还有一座种植异国情调植物的英式花园，英式花园不像意式花园如此严格讲究对称，其保有各种各样异国原生植物，包括黎巴嫩雪松，显得十分别致。
While the Kingdom of (乾隆) Qiánlóng flourished in China, extending the borders of the empire to Turkestan, Burma, Annam and Tibet, Italy was not yet a unified peninsula as it is today.
In the Center-southern part of Italy there was the Kingdom of Naples. One of the wealthiest kingdoms on the Peninsula. The capital of the Kingdom was precisely Naples, a city rich in over two thousand years of history and a Mediterranean metropolis. For about six hundred years southern Italy identified itself with its capital.
For the knowledge of the Neapolitan culture of the eighteenth century it is essential to know the history of the Royal Palace of Caserta, (situated about 20 km. from Naples), and of its Architect, Luigi Vanvitelli. In the era of Qiánlóng, Charles III of Bourbon reigned and undertook a vast work of reorganization of his State.
On 20 January 1752, Charles III of Bourbon laid the foundation stone for the construction of the magnificent Caserta palace, one the greatest palaces in 18th century Europe. For the design of his residence, the monarch called the architect Luigi Vanvitelli, who designed it changing the style inspired by ancient Rome that Italian architecture had always followed, and in this Palace created a style that will never be overcome: in an era in which Italy was not yet unified, he could create a timeless style. Creating a timeless style was important for such a King, in the same way it was important for Popes and other authorities in Italy before Italian unification.
In fact, the king of Naples – who in October 1759 would have left the capital of his kingdom to gird the crown of Spain, when the palace had not yet been completed – had thought of building a residence on the type of Versailles (France), to put in highlight real magnificence and fulfill his ambition, but not only.
When an enlightened Sovereign and a brilliant architect met in Italy a wonderful work of art could be created. The brilliant architect was Luigi Vanvitelli, of Dutch origin, whose 320th anniversary of the birth is celebrated this year (Naples, 12 May 1700 – Caserta, 1 March 1773).
The architect Vanvitelli is considered one of the major interpreters of the Rococo period. He carried out a large number of works that still characterize the landscape of various Italian cities: in Caserta (near Naples) the scenographic Royal Palace, to which his name is still inextricably linked, and the imposing Carolino aqueduct; in Naples the Foro Carolino, the Doria d’Angri palace, the church of the Santissima Annunziata; in Rome the difficult restoration of the Basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli and in Ancona (Center-eastern Italy) the great Lazzaretto, on an artificial pentagonal island he built, and the Church of Jesus.
The architect showed his authority after taking part in the competitions for the Trevi Fountain (Rome) and for the façade of San Giovanni in Laterano (Rome): his projects, although not winning, were highly appreciated and revealed his artistic flair. Having risen to fame, he was very active in Central Italy, in particular in Ancona and in Rome.
To accomplish his project, the sovereign of Naples turned to the architect Luigi Vanvitelli, at that time engaged in the restoration of the Basilica in Loreto (Center-eastern Italy) on behalf of the Papal States. Carlo di Borbone obtained from the Pope the permit to commission the artist.
It can be said that this magnificent building is not only a symbol of power, but also a sign to stimulate the country through Government investment in infrastructure. Inspired by the Palace of Versailles in France, the king wanted to express his identity and king’s rights. At the time he was only 35 years old and the palace was chosen in the city of Caserta, due to its geographical environment, far away from the large volcano of Mount Vesuvius, which was a constant threat to the capital Naples, and was also protected from the invasion of sea water.
The architect Vanvitelli conceived also the famous waterway to complete this project. The idea was to allow merchant ships to enter the canal from the port of Naples and enter the palace directly. Unfortunately, this important project was not carried out because of the king’s departure.
The Royal Palace at Caserta and its park, inserted as one of the 55 Italian UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1997, are treasures of truly incomparable splendor. Highly-curated and organized in the details and design of its four monumental courtyards, the Palace is surrounded by a beautiful park that today is the destination of thousands upon thousands of tourists. The sumptuous palace is an ideal and harmonious fusion of two other royal residences: the Royal Palace at Versailles and the Escorial Palace in Madrid. 400 Muslim slaves and a hundred convicts also worked on the construction of the Royal Palace designed by Vanvitelli.
These slaves had been captured on the Tunisian coast by the Neapolitan fleet, while others had been sold to the King by Jewish merchants. The truth is that many of these slaves arrived willingly from Constantinople. In fact, they were promised Neapolitan freedom and citizenship in the event of conversion to Christianity and a marriage with a local woman. This, in reality, was only a deception, since they had no chance either to have contact with the inhabitants of Caserta or to be able to establish a family with the poor wages they received, to say the least.
The Royal Palace at Caserta spreads out before observers as a monumental complex of 45, 000 s.q.m. (484,376 sq.ft. or approx. 11 acres) and, with its five floors, stands 36 meters (118 feet) tall. On its principal façade are 143 windows, while inside, 1, 200 rooms and 34 stairways unwind throughout the palace. It is built mostly in brick while the first two floors are laid with travertine. The entire structure is crowned by a very wide central dome. Those who see its inside are almost always astonished by its continuous succession of stuccoes, reliefs, frescoes, sulptures, flooring and inlays. Those embellishments that stand out the most are located in the Sala di Astrea, Sala di Marte and Sala del Trono; the Sala del Trono, in fact, is the largest of the interior royal apartments – it was used for the reception and accommodation of important personalities of the day. The most scenographic setting in the Palace is probably where the atrium, the grand Royal Staircase and the chapel meet. The Royal Staircase is an invention of 17th-Century scenographic arts; it connects the lower and upper vestibules, giving access to the royal apartments via the upper. The Palatine Chapel, designed by Vanvitelli, decorations and all, exhibits – more than any other environment here – strong similarities to the precedents left by Versailles. Also rather remarkable is the court theatre, a marvelous example of 17th-Century theatre architecture: the horseshoe-shaped hall (as opposed to in the round) is made complete by the particular disposition of the columns (in giant order, or two stories). These are just a few of the environments in the enormous Palace, but all are exceptional. The Pinacoteca’s (Painting Gallery’s) interior is organized as a series of connected room that display countless works of still lifes, war scenes, and of course, portraits of the members of the Bourbon Dynasty. In the “old apartment” the Bourbon Nativity is always on show. The Nativity Scene was a great passion of the noble Bourbon Family, and it is thanks to them that the Nativity tradition spread from Naples to the rest of the world. The Palatine Library is annexed to the Queen’s Apartments – woman of refinement and culture – and is decorated by reliefs and frescoes that include that of the zodiac signs and the constellations, executed according to Vanvitelli’s design. Also evocative are the rooms dedicated to the four seasons. Perhaps the most integral aspect of this Palace’s majesty and beauty is its park, composed of numerous fountains and waterfalls. The park is a typical exemplar of the Italian garden, landscaped with vast fields, flower beds and, above all, a triumph of “water games” or dancing fountains. Along the central axis, then, is a succession of pools, fountains and cascades adorned by large sculptural groupings, all which create a unique scenographic impact that culminates with the Grand Cascade. The park extends to the summit of the hill opposite the Palace, where an English garden perfectly frames an arrangement of exotic plants. The English Garden, moreover, is very special: wanted by Maria Carolina of Austria, it is less symmetrical in respect to that Italian, but it holds a vast range of indigenous and exotic plants alike, including Cedars of Lebanon. Together with the Royal Palace and park at Caserta, UNESCO also inserted the Aqueduct (also realized by Luigi Vanvitelli) on the World Heritage List, along with the nearby complex at San Leucio, cited for its representation of a site that is not only an industrial city, but that served as an additional territorial piece of the Royal enclave.
Charles left a lasting legacy on his kingdom, building widely and introducing reforms during his reign.
But history never stops. The so called “Surrender of Caserta” of April 29, 1945 was the written agreement that formalized the surrender of German forces in Italy, ending the Italian Campaign of World War II. The document, signed at the Royal Palace of Caserta, was to become effective on May 2, 1945.
In the attics of the Reggia, between the walkways that run tens of meters high, it is possible to pass through corridors and rooms where, during World War II, first lodged German troops and then the allied ones. There are still the traces of nostalgia and fear left by the soldiers which can be discovered today.
L’Italia tenta di ripartire dopo la Pandemia
Il Coronavirus ha cambiato anche le vite degli italiani, un popolo che ha sempre curato molto i piaceri della vita all’aria aperta, della cucina conviviale con amici e parenti, dello sport, dello stare insieme. Gli italiani sono chiusi in casa da quasi due mesi e hanno cominciato, soprattutto chi ha potuto, a lavorare utilizzando la tecnologia informatica. Però forse non si stanno ancora rendendo conto che il mondo in cui hanno vissuto non sarà più lo stesso. L’isolamento e la paura del contagio possono cambiare il modo di vivere degli italiani. In particolare, il distanziamento sociale, che sarà la norma, avrà sicuramente effetti psicologici di lungo periodo a causa degli spazi ristretti e degli orizzonti murati da altri palazzi nelle grandi città.
In Italia la cosiddetta “Fase 2” della pandemia di COVID19 ha introdotto alcune attenuazioni delle misure restrittive sugli spostamenti a partire da lunedì 4 maggio. Il governo ha stabilito delle novità, tra le quali, per esempio, la possibilità delle visite ai propri congiunti che vivono nella stessa Regione e la riapertura di parchi e giardini pubblici, nel rispetto delle norme sanitarie ed evitando gli assembramenti. Nei parchi, però, le aree giochi per i bambini sono interdette e questo fa certamente tristezza.
È diventato obbligatorio l’uso della mascherina nei luoghi chiusi accessibili al pubblico, come i mezzi di trasporto pubblico e i negozi. Per entrare nelle stazioni della metropolitana di Roma e di altre città bisogna sottoporsi ai controlli e aspettare di potere entrare in stazione in maniera contingentata. La nuova normativa ha stabilito anche l’obbligo di rimanere all’interno della propria casa per tutti coloro che presentano sintomi legati a sindromi respiratorie e una temperatura corporea superiore ai 37,5 gradi.
Sempre dal 4 maggio, si è potuti tornare a effettuare l’attività motoria e quella sportiva, individualmente, anche in posti distanti da casa più di 200 metri . Ma insieme all’attività fisica libera si sono rivisti anche i poveri che chiedono l’elemosina fuori dei giardini pubblici.
Altra importante novità ha riguardato la possibilità di svolgere i funerali, con un numero di partecipanti massimo fissato in 15 persone e sempre indossando le mascherine protettive e possibilmente all’aperto. Le chiese sono semiaperte ma è vietato celebrare il culto. Dal 18 maggio sarà prevista la celebrazione delle messe “con il popolo”. La messa, oltre che un fatto di carattere religioso, in Italia è anche un evento culturale, sociale ed economico. A questo punto bisogna chiedersi perché il governo non ha previsto anche l’apertura dei Teatri che rappresentano un polo importantissimo di diffusione culturale ed economico. I Teatri sono quelli che impiegano non solo attori ma tutto un indotto che è in profonda crisi. Dal giorno 11 maggio sarà anche possibile visitare i Musei, ma sempre in maniera contingentata.
È stata consentita la ristorazione da asporto per bar, ristoranti e simili, che si va ad aggiungere all’attività di consegna a domicilio già ammessa. Sono ripartite diverse attività produttive e industriali, le attività per il settore manifatturiero e quello edile, insieme a tutte le attività all’ingrosso ad essi correlati, con l’obbligo di rispetto delle regole vigenti in materia di sicurezza sul lavoro.
Sono adesso consentiti gli spostamenti per incontrare esclusivamente i propri congiunti, che devono considerarsi tra gli spostamenti giustificati per necessità. E’ comunque fortemente raccomandato limitare al massimo gli incontri con persone non conviventi, poiché questo aumenta il rischio di contagio. In occasione di questi incontri devono essere rispettati: il divieto di assembramento, il distanziamento interpersonale di almeno un metro e l’obbligo di usare le mascherine per la protezione delle vie respiratorie. L’incontro con i congiunti è stato uno dei punti più controversi perché le persone volevano capire chi erano i “congiunti”. Il governo ha dovuto chiarire che coniugi sono: i partner conviventi, i partner delle unioni civili, le persone che sono legate da uno stabile legame affettivo, nonché i parenti fino al sesto grado (come, per esempio, i figli dei cugini tra loro) e gli affini fino al quarto grado (come, per esempio, i cugini del coniuge). Questo non era certo scontato in una società quale quella italiana dove i vincoli di parentela, un tempo molto forti, si sono allentati soprattutto a causa della forte emigrazione interna ( gli italiani dagli anni Sessanta si sono spostati da Sud a Nord e dalle campagne alle grandi città) e tali spostamenti non sempre hanno consentito di mantenere i vincoli di parentela.
In questa Fase 2 si può uscire di casa solo per andare al lavoro, per motivi di salute, per necessità o per svolgere attività sportiva o motoria all’aperto. Le passeggiate saranno ammesse se strettamente necessarie a realizzare uno spostamento giustificato da uno dei motivi indicati. Ad esempio, è giustificato da ragioni di necessità spostarsi per fare la spesa, per acquistare giornali, per andare in farmacia, o comunque per acquistare beni necessari per la vita quotidiana, ovvero per recarsi presso uno qualsiasi degli esercizi commerciali aperti. Inoltre, è giustificata ogni uscita dal domicilio per l’attività sportiva o motoria all’aperto.
L’Italia, però , è fatta anche dai governi delle Regioni e la Fase 2 potrà non proseguire di pari passo in tutta Italia. Saranno possibili “scelte differenziate” tra le Regioni sulle riaperture di attività, secondo il principio per cui se si abbassasse il tasso di contagio ci potrebbero essere più aperture e viceversa. Alcuni Presidenti di Regione hanno, infatti, deciso di contestare pubblicamente il contenuto di alcuni punti del Decreto del governo rivendicando una più ampia sfera di autonomia decisionale.
Ma le Regioni in Italia, pur avendo un certo grado di autonomia a seconda del settore di riferimento, della natura del loro statuto e di apposite previsioni della Costituzione, sono comunque enti derivati che devono adeguarsi ad un sistema che ha nello Stato la sua istituzione più elevata.
Dato che il coronavirus non sta colpendo tutte le regioni italiane allo stesso modo, avrebbe senso che quelle meno colpite prendessero più coraggio nell’anticipare le nuove disposizioni nazionali. Invece succede il contrario. Soprattutto per quanto riguarda il turismo, una delle maggiori attività economiche italiane, la situazione si presenta critica: sono già tante le aziende del settore che chiuderanno i battenti nonostante l’estate alle porte.
Chi resisterà, lo farà comunque non potendo dare lavoro a tutte le persone a cui lo dava prima. Mancano all’appello, secondo i dati dell’Istituto Nazionale di statistica (Istat), 81 milioni di turisti e 10 miliardi di euro spesi dagli stranieri. Gli imprenditori del turismo balneare stanno pensando a box in plexiglass o in bambù da posizionare a distanza sulle spiagge o ad altre soluzioni per il distanziamento sociale. Ma se tutto ciò non avverrà a pagare sarà l’economia. Cioè tutti gli italiani.
图/文作者：马黎穤（Carlo Marino），欧洲通讯社（European News Agency）记者，资深翻译，赫尔辛基芬兰文学学会（Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura）研究员，曾派驻哥斯达黎加、卢森堡等多个国家。
值得一提的是，在罗马的拉扎罗·斯帕拉捷公立传染病医院（意大利语Istituto nazionale per le malattie infettive “L. Spallanzani”，因意大利著名的生物理学家拉扎罗·斯帕拉捷命名），两位来自武汉的中国病患在那得到救治，经历49天的治疗后，这对中国夫妇痊愈出院。
至目前为止，意大利南部死亡人数要比北部低许多。许多南部大区的主席，例如坎帕尼亚大区主席温琴佐·代·卢卡（Vincenzo De Luca）甚至用恐吓性的言语让市民留在家中。因为“封城”措施对于意大利南部更为重要，那里的卫生保健系统衰败不堪，除了首府拿波里的少数医院，其他地方的医院的软、硬件条件根本不足以应对如此的危机。当前的公共保健卫生系统危机，还有可能会进一步助推民众的心理恐慌。待在家里的人们迫切希望恢复常态。
意大利总统塞尔吉奥•马塔雷拉（Sergio Mattarella）主持了开幕仪式，随后由外交和国际合作部部长路易吉•迪玛约（Luigi Di Maio）、非洲联盟委员会主席穆萨•法基•马哈马特（Moussa Faki Mahamat）、联合国非洲经济委员会（UNECA）副秘书长兼执行秘书维拉•松圭（Vera Songwe）以及第26届联合国气候变化大会主席爱洛克•夏尔马（Alok Sharma）在开幕会议上依次发言。
New frontiers of Energy, Infrastructure and Digital Transformation in Africa: Encounters with Africa in Rome
In the early 2000s, contact between China and the African continent started undergoing greater and faster expansion and diversification, involving an increasing number of countries, invested capital, and areas of interest. Around the same time, Italy, like the European Union, began seeking to reformulate its traditional approach toward Africa and started envisioning options for trilateral cooperation involving China and Africa. The expression “trilateral cooperation” is still prominent in the EU’s political discourse on China affairs. China’s growing importance as a global actor and its intensifying presence on the African continent has undoubtedly been a determining factor in the EC’s, and Italy’s, renewed interest in developing a trilateral dialogue.
Italy is one of the main investors in Africa, with 27 billion euros invested in 2020 alone, while Africa is growing from 6% to 10% and its consumer class is growing stronger and moves towards an important modernization.
On Friday, 8 October 2021, the “Encounters with Africa” event was held, as the third edition of the Italy-Africa Ministerial Conference, in Rome. The event brought together delegations from 54 African countries, representatives of the African Union and other major African regional organisations, as well as a number of members of the Italian institutions and representatives of the economic, business, academic and third sector worlds.
The Italian President, Sergio Mattarella, opened the works day, followed by speeches at the inaugural plenary session by the Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation, Luigi Di Maio, the Chairperson of the African Union Commission, Moussa Faki Mahamat, the USG and Executive Secretary of the UN’s Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA), Vera Songwe, the President of the COP 26, Alok Sharma.
The aim of “Encounters with Africa” is to provide a forum for exchange and dialogue between Ministers of Foreign Affairs, representatives from International Organizations and civil society, in order to identify common approaches to deal with challenges related to energy, climate, the environment, and sustainable development in the African continent. In fact, these issues are a foreign policy priority today, due to their importance for the health, economic growth and security of present and future generations globally.
To this end, “Encounters with Africa” aims to support African energy needs for a more inclusive society. Over 600 million people in Africa still do not have access to electricity. Therefore, policies must be implemented to enable the Continent to have the necessary infrastructure and technologies to ensure its energy self-sufficiency and meet the level of demand that is expected to grow at twice the global average, driven by its booming population growth. Access to energy is a prerequisite for the development of a modern digital economy. Widespread availability of basic services, first and foremost education and access to water, is also necessary to combat poverty, extremism and marginalization, especially among the most vulnerable segments of the population, such as women and young people. “Encounters with Africa” will address these issues through a comprehensive approach to promote solutions aimed at improving the living conditions of African populations.
Promote environmental protection through ecological transition is another goal of Italian cooperation with Africa. The sustainability challenge in Africa is not only linked to environmental protection, but it also involves the promotion of a new model for economic growth, infrastructure construction, income distribution, and foreign debt reduction based on endogenous development. Africa cannot be expected to pursue the same ecological transition goals that apply to industrialized countries – which are endowed with capital and know-how – without adequate assistance. In addition, African countries virtually have had no historical responsibility for man-made global warming. From this perspective, innovation processes should be fostered through a leapfrogging model, to promote the digitization of African economies, their integration into international markets, as well as vocational training for working age women and youth. “Encounters with Africa” promoted an exchange of views between institutional and private players to identify development methods that enable Africa to meet Paris Agreement targets and accelerate its progress in implementing the 2030 Agenda.
The conference provided an opportunity to reinforce the historic ties between Italy and Africa, also regarding environmental protection and green growth. Given global consumers’ growing attention to environmental sustainability, it is essential that production processes on the African continent comply with environmental standards, and that they receive technological support from industrialized countries. In the renewable energy sector, and energy transition in particular, Italy can boost African development thanks to its extensive experience and know-how in renewable sources, the fight against energy scarcity and grid efficiency. The need for cooperation to reach sustainable development goals and the excellence of Italian manufacturing and skills in key industries – such as infrastructure, renewable energy, health and agri-food – provide ample scope to strengthen this partnership. Additional favorable factors include the complementary roles of Italian and African private partners in value chains and the ease with which Italian businesses have traditionally become integrated into Africa’s economic context.
For Africa, renewables are not just an abundant natural energy reserve. They are readily available tools to establish a new sustainable development model that can positively affect health, literacy and schooling, relationships between overcrowded cities and rural areas, mobility, and access to telecommunications and digital infrastructures that are also powered by sustainable sources.
Africa’s energy transition will have a powerful impact globally, and its scope can be gleaned from an initial evidence. According to data from the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), Africa’s power generation capacity grew by 40% between 2015 and 2019. In the East Africa Rift Region alone, solar and wind energy, for example, recorded the fastest growth rate, averaging 115.7% and 71.6% annually. The energy transition requires constant cooperation from all stakeholders involved in environmental impact, workforce enhancement, cost distribution, technology use.
A key factor is Italian excellence in all relevant industries involved in achieving a full ecological transition. The agri-food industry, for instance, has a potential market in Africa that could reach 1 trillion euros by 2030 according to African Union estimates. Moreover, Italian companies are global leaders in the energy industry. In this context, the “Pact for Export”, promoted by the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation, was recently signed by relevant Italian ministries and business leaders. It will provide a framework to boost economic and industrial cooperation through events such as business forums, workshops and country presentations, as well as incoming business missions from Africa to major international trade fairs in Italy.
Encouraging partnerships between the Italy and the African private sector should be a crucial point in the new EU-Africa business strategy, with the twofold aim of enhancing the confidence of European companies active in African markets and supporting the development of an African private sector. Second and consequently, a stronger African entrepreneurial environment and greater African ownership of trilateral business ventures would certainly contribute to the establishment of a level playing field in African markets. These developments would be essential to the advancement of an economic and legal environment in which all parties follow the same rules and gain equal opportunities to compete.
During panels and sessions, distinguished guests learnt during “Encounters with Africa” about how Italy can contribute and what it can do in partnership with African countries on energy, environmental, climate and sustainability issues, to foster a post-pandemic recovery and stimulate greater social and economic cooperation as equal partners.
Post-pandemic economic and social recovery, energy transition and sustainability are the three pillars that will support Africa in the near future. With appropriate support policies, Africa could actually become the first continent to experience economic and industrial growth based primarily on clean energy. This, in turn, will have an impact on many aspects of human and social development: from access to drinking water, to education, to the creation of new jobs and alternative forms of consumption, as well as the emancipation of women.
In this context, Italy will make the most of this opportunity to highlight the necessary capabilities to launch useful cooperation initiatives for both the African continent and the Italian economy.
Italy is required to make an additional “systemic” effort at a political, institutional and industrial level, to export the energy chain to other countries, launch structured capacity building initiatives and share strategies, plans and resources for a post-pandemic recovery.
Thus, “Encounters with Africa” has been an opportunity to establish a Europe-Mediterranean-Africa axis: an area of competitiveness, multidimensional cooperation and development based on solidarity, inclusion and sustainability.
Black Madonnas in Italy
A Black Madonna is an iconographic representation (painting or sculpture), typical of Christian iconography, of the Virgin Mary, possibly accompanied by the Child Jesus, whose face has a dark color, if not really black.
Today the Black Madonnas are present throughout Europe. At least two hundred of these statues dominate the altars in France a country spanning Western Europe and overseas regions and territories. Unfortunately, the researcher who intends to undertake a personal study on the Black Virgins, is faced with a considerable problem.
In many cases the local clergy wanted to hide the dark and unorthodox color of the statues. Scandalized by the too exotic features of the Madonnas, the ecclesiastics had them painted white. In other cases, while leaving the original dark color, parish priests and sacristans try to convince the inexperienced visitor that the black is due exclusively to the perennial smoke of the candles and not to the quality of the wood chosen by the sculptor or to a color desired by the artist.
There’s a recurring presence of black Madonnas in Italy with numerous black Madonna sanctuaries and pilgrimage sites located especially in the Southern regions.
Nostalgia for the unforgettable homeland of one’s ancestors associated with an inflexible devotion to Catholicism may be regarded as two of the most evident and plausible reasons for the surprising interest in Black Madonnas showed in the USA by several American Italian scholars, artists, and writers, through their critical inquiries, creative projects, and fictional as well as non fictional narratives.
In the Italian peninsula, the archaic cults of the African Goddess Isis, of the black Goddess Artemis of Ephesus, of Demeter, of Cybele (the Great Mother of the Gods), of Hera, of the Goddess Mefiti (an Italic divinity who dispelled evil spirits), and of the indigenous Vitulia (often assimilated to Hera) somehow all merged with the adoration of the black Madonna.
The Black Madonna has traditionally been worshipped by those who were ‘other’ and not of the dominant culture.
The term Black Madonna or Black Virgin tends to refer to statues or paintings in Western Christendom of the Blessed Virgin Mary and the Infant Jesus, where both figures are depicted as black. The Black Madonna can be found both in Catholic and Orthodox countries.
The paintings are usually icons which are Byzantine in origin or style, some made in 13th- or 14th-century Italy (at the time of Yuan and Ming dynasties in China) , others are older and from the Middle East, Caucasus or Africa, mainly Egypt and Ethiopia. Statues are often made of wood but occasionally made of stone, painted and up to 75 cm (30 in) tall. They fall into two main groups: free-standing upright figures or seated figures on a throne. There are about 400–500 Black Madonnas in Europe, depending on how they are classified. Some are in museums, but most are in churches or shrines and are venerated by believers. Some are associated with miracles and attract substantial numbers of pilgrims.
Black Madonnas come in different forms, and the speculations behind the reason for the dark hue of each individual icon or statue vary greatly and are not without controversy. Though some Madonnas were originally black or brown when they were made, others have simply turned darker due to factors like aging or candle smoke.
In Europe and Italy the mutation of elements between different religions or the convergence of ideological elements, in many cases has produced the combination of Christian cults with ancient pagan cults. In many ways, even the spread of the veneration of the “Black Virgin” can be traced back to this operation. The cult of the Madonna was superimposed on that of the pagan Mothers, and in it also that of Isis, the “Mother” of the ancient world, lives again.
The hypothesis of some scholars is that precisely from the Great Mother, the Goddess Earth, anthropomorphized in Mary, the mother of God, would probably derive the famous “Black Virgins”, the dark-faced Madonnas venerated in many sanctuaries in Italy. The presence of the cult of the Black Virgins would therefore distinguish the places particularly linked to the Great Mother. In Italy there are at least 45 places dedicated to the “Black Virgin”.
South East Sicily and UNESCO heritage monuments
China was one of the first countries to introduce Baroque architecture. Baroque architecture is a highly decorative and theatrical style which appeared in Italy in the early 17th century and gradually spread across Europe. It was originally introduced by the Catholic Church, particularly by the Jesuits, and was a style that inspired surprise and awe. Already in the sixteenth century, during the Ming dynasty, Western missionaries faced a long journey to go to China and spread the religion, at the same time introducing the Baroque to the country.
When Chinese artisans integrated their traditional elements into Baroque architecture they created a unique style of great value: the “Chinese Baroque”, in fact, which is not only a style but also culture, history and memory.
Since June 26, 2002 eight cities of the Val di Noto, straddling the areas of Catania, Syracuse and Ragusa, and specifically Caltagirone, Catania, Militello Val di Catania, Modica, Noto, Palazzolo Acreide, Ragusa and Scicli have been included by UNESCO among the World Heritage sites with specific reasons that recall their splendid example of late Baroque that makes its monuments unique.
In fact, in the summer of 2002, in Budapest, during the works of the 26th session of the International Scientific Committee, UNESCO on the basis of strict criteria introduced the area of Val di Noto in the World Heritage List (List of the heritage of Humanity as “The late Baroque cities of the Val di Noto (south-eastern Sicily)”, which represent a considerable collective enterprise, successfully brought to a high level of architecture and artistic achievement.
Kept within the late Baroque, they also describe particular innovations in the urban planning and city building.
The shape and character of the south-east of Sicily is different from much of Sicily because of a natural disaster that took place in 1693, at the time of Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing, when an earthquake shook the region and destroyed many of the towns.
Sicily was at the time ruled as part of the Crown of Aragon by the Kings of Spain. The Viceroy in Madrid, the Duke of Uzeda, reacted by appointing Giuseppe Lanza, the Duke of Camastra for the Val Demone and Val di Noto regions of Sicily respectively.
One of the Duke of Camastra’s first acts was to exempt the worst affected areas from taxes for ten years. The tax exemption gave a strong impetus to the reconstruction of the province and allowed the population not to abandon their places of birth.
The Late Baroque Towns of the Val di Noto is comprised of components of eight towns located in south-eastern Sicily (Caltagirone, Militello Val di Catania, Catania, Modica, Noto, Palazzolo Acreide, Ragusa and Scicli).
These historic centres and urban environments reflect the great, post-seismic rebuilding achievement of the decades following the catastrophic earthquake of 1693, which ravaged towns across south-eastern Sicily. The rebuilding, restoration and reconstruction of these communities resulted in the creation of an exceptional group of towns, all reflecting the late Baroque architecture of the 17th century in all its forms and applications. Even though the Baroque era had already passed, the architects and engineers who had to do the reconstruction used the Baroque style because they only had books describing that style. In this way they were able to save on the costs of research and training of the workers.
The towns were rebuilt in the Baroque architectural style, and are now considered to be masterpieces of the style
A flourishing of worked stone, sun and art kisses these places, which since that date, thanks also to a very rich tourist context, has grown as one of the favorite holiday destinations in Sicily.
Monuments, churches, suggestive works of art open towards enchanting beaches.
In the vicinity of the cities of art, many naturalistic itineraries, on which unique archaeological areas often insist, silent testimonies of the past, offer green and fresh refreshing ideas on hot and sultry summer days. In the evening, clubs and restaurants delight the tourist with menus based on typical products
Last but not least, the ancient city of Catania, the capital city of this region, was devastated, in the seventeenth century, by violent eruption of Mt. Etna, which in 1669 destroyed the city, and by an earthquake in 1693. These catastrophic events allowed the city to be rebuilt according to the baroque style of that time.